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This study determined whether retinal degeneration during diabetes includes retinal neural cell apoptosis. Image analysis of retinal sections from streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats after 7.5 months of STZ diabetes identified 22% and 14% reductions in the thickness of the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers, respectively (P < 0. 001). The number of(More)
Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, but the molecular changes that cause this pathology are unclear. Occludin is a transmembrane component of interendothelial tight junctions that may regulate permeability at the BRB. In this study, we examined the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and diabetes on(More)
PURPOSE This study tested the Ins2(Akita) mouse as an animal model of retinal complications in diabetes. The Ins2(Akita) mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in the insulin 2 gene that causes misfolding of the insulin protein. The mutation arose and is maintained on the C57BL/6J background. Male mice heterozygous for this mutation have(More)
The ability of insulin to protect neurons from apoptosis was examined in differentiated R28 cells, a neural cell line derived from the neonatal rat retina. Apoptosis was induced by serum deprivation, and the number of pyknotic cells was counted. p53 and Akt were examined by immunoblotting after serum deprivation and insulin treatment, and caspase-3(More)
Retinal microvascular dysfunction in diabetes is a major component of diabetic retinopathy. This review highlights recent observations regarding the cellular anatomy that contributes to the blood-retinal barrier and its breakdown, the alterations of macroglial, neuronal, and microglial cells in diabetes, and how these changes lead to loss of vision. In(More)
The mechanism by which epithelial and endothelial cells interact to form polarized tissue is of fundamental importance to multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of these barriers occurs in a variety of diseases, destroying the normal cellular environments and leading to organ failure. Increased levels of growth factors are a common characteristic of(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy.(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) alters tight junctions (TJs) and promotes vascular permeability in many retinal and brain diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of barrier regulation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that occludin phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate VEGF-induced TJ protein trafficking and concomitant vascular(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have a physiologic role in regulating vessel permeability and contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy as well as tumor development. We set out to ascertain the mechanism by which VEGF regulates paracellular permeability in rats. Intra-ocular injection of VEGF caused a post-translational(More)
Corticosteroids provide an effective treatment to reduce edema for conditions in which the blood-brain or blood-retinal barrier is compromised. However, little is known about the mechanism by which these hormones affect endothelial cell function. We hypothesized that hydrocortisone would reduce transport of water and solutes across bovine retinal(More)