David A. Antonetti

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This study determined whether retinal degeneration during diabetes includes retinal neural cell apoptosis. Image analysis of retinal sections from streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats after 7.5 months of STZ diabetes identified 22% and 14% reductions in the thickness of the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers, respectively (P < 0. 001). The number of(More)
Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, but the molecular changes that cause this pathology are unclear. Occludin is a transmembrane component of interendothelial tight junctions that may regulate permeability at the BRB. In this study, we examined the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and diabetes on(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy.(More)
PURPOSE This study tested the Ins2(Akita) mouse as an animal model of retinal complications in diabetes. The Ins2(Akita) mutation results in a single amino acid substitution in the insulin 2 gene that causes misfolding of the insulin protein. The mutation arose and is maintained on the C57BL/6J background. Male mice heterozygous for this mutation have(More)
The ability of insulin to protect neurons from apoptosis was examined in differentiated R28 cells, a neural cell line derived from the neonatal rat retina. Apoptosis was induced by serum deprivation, and the number of pyknotic cells was counted. p53 and Akt were examined by immunoblotting after serum deprivation and insulin treatment, and caspase-3(More)
The mechanism by which epithelial and endothelial cells interact to form polarized tissue is of fundamental importance to multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of these barriers occurs in a variety of diseases, destroying the normal cellular environments and leading to organ failure. Increased levels of growth factors are a common characteristic of(More)
OBJECTIVE Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) are elevated in the vitreous of diabetic patients and in retinas of diabetic rats associated with increased retinal vascular permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinal vascular permeability induced by these cytokines are poorly understood. In this study, the(More)
Insulin receptor (IR) signaling cascades have been studied in many tissues, but retinal insulin action has received little attention. Retinal IR signaling and activity were investigated in vivo in rats that were freely fed, fasted, or injected with insulin by phosphotyrosine immunoblotting and by measuring kinase activity. A retina explant system was(More)
PURPOSE To investigate how diabetes alters vascular endothelial cell tight junction protein and glial cell morphology at the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS The distribution of the glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the endothelial cell tight junction protein occludin were explored by immunofluorescence histochemistry in(More)
Vascular permeability is closely linked with angiogenesis in a number of pathologies. In the retina, the normally well-developed blood-retinal barrier is altered in a host of eye diseases preceding or commensurate with angiogenesis. This review examines the literature regarding the tight junction complex that establishes the blood-retinal barrier focusing(More)