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The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based(More)
Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report(More)
Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density,(More)
The F2 screen is a flexible methodology used to estimate the frequency of resistance alleles (R) in an insect population. We have developed several alternative protocols, along with the associated statistics, to conduct an F2 screen with mated or unmated individuals, random and nonrandom mating of F1 adults, and the screening of multiple lines together in(More)
For maize and cotton, transgenic varieties that express toxins derived from Bacillus thuriengensis (Bt) are now planted in several countries. To slow resistance evolution, the “high-dose/refuge” strategy is broadly implemented in which resistance is recessive and some fields (or areas within fields) are planted exclusively with Bt crops and other fields(More)
Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting(More)
Research on non-target effects of transgenic crop plants has focused primarily on bitrophic, tritrophic and indirect effects of entomotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, but little work has considered intergenerational transfer of Cry proteins. This work reports a lepidopteran (Chlosyne lacinia) taking up a Bt entomotoxin when exposed to sublethal or low(More)
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a devastating invasive species in the USA. Similar to other insects, olfaction plays an important role in its survival and reproduction. As odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in the initial semiochemical recognition steps, we used RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify OBPs in its antennae, and(More)
  • John H Gibbons, Bernadine P Healy, Timothy B Atkeson, Johnson Washington, David Blumenthal, Hon Edmund +81 others
  • 1988
Foreword Since the discovery of recombinant DNA technology in the early 1970s much attention has focused on the potential benefits and risks presented by the new abilities of researchers to manipulate DNA. The importance of ecological issues was heightened in 1982 with the proposal by researchers to field test bacteria engineered to reduce crop losses due(More)
Transgenic crops that express insecticide genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used worldwide against moth and beetle pests. Because these engineered plants can kill over 95% of susceptible larvae, they can rapidly select for resistance. Here, we use a model for a pyramid two-toxin Bt crop to explore the consequences of spatio-temporal variation in(More)