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The evolution of resistance in pests such as the European corn borer will imperil transgenic maize varieties that express insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Patchworks of treated and untreated fields can delay the evolution of pesticide resistance, but the untreated refuge fields are likely to sustain heavy damage. A strategy that(More)
The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based(More)
Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report(More)
Community genetics is the study of the interaction between genes within a species and populations of other species in a community.) as a modern attempt to integrate community ecology and evolution. Research programs in community genetics span from understanding the mechanistic bases of the evolution of organisms in a community context to identifying the(More)
The refuge plus high-dose strategy for resistance management assumes that the frequency of resistance alleles is low. We used an F2 screen to estimate the frequency of resistance to transgenic corn that produces Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Cry1Ab toxin (Bt corn) in an Iowa population of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). We also proposed(More)
The F2 screen is a flexible methodology used to estimate the frequency of resistance alleles (R) in an insect population. We have developed several alternative protocols, along with the associated statistics, to conduct an F2 screen with mated or unmated individuals, random and nonrandom mating of F1 adults, and the screening of multiple lines together in(More)
For maize and cotton, transgenic varieties that express toxins derived from Bacillus thuriengensis (Bt) are now planted in several countries. To slow resistance evolution, the “high-dose/refuge” strategy is broadly implemented in which resistance is recessive and some fields (or areas within fields) are planted exclusively with Bt crops and other fields(More)
Genetically engineered (GE) insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide. With recent approvals of GE insect releases, there is a need for a synthesized framework to evaluate their potential ecological and evolutionary effects. The effects may occur in two phases: a transitory phase when the focal population changes in density,(More)
Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting(More)
2 NOTICE This report has been written as part of the activities of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). This report has not been reviewed for approval by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Agency) and, hence, the contents of this report do not necessarily represent the views and(More)