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The Ecological Society of America has evaluated current U.S. national policies and practices on biological invasions in light of current scientific knowledge. Invasions by harmful nonnative species are increasing in number and area affected; the damages to ecosystems, economic activity, and human welfare are accumulating. Without improved strategies based(More)
The evolution of resistance in pests such as the European corn borer will imperil transgenic maize varieties that express insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. Patchworks of treated and untreated fields can delay the evolution of pesticide resistance, but the untreated refuge fields are likely to sustain heavy damage. A strategy that(More)
This review uses a data-driven, quantitative method to summarize the published, peer-reviewed literature about the impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on arthropod natural enemies in laboratory experiments. The method is similar to meta-analysis, and, in contrast to a simple author-vote counting method used by several earlier reviews, gives an(More)
Farmers, industry, governments and environmental groups agree that it would be useful to manage transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins to delay the evolution of resistance in target pests. The main strategy proposed for delaying resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) toxins in transgenic crops is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This strategy is(More)
By the end of the 1980s, a broad consensus had developed that there were potential environmental risks of transgenic plants requiring assessment and that this assessment must be done on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the transgene, recipient organism, intended environment of release, and the frequency and scale of the intended introduction. Since(More)
Transgenic Bt crops produce insecticidal Cry proteins that are released to soil in plant residues, root exudates, and pollen and that may affect soil microorganisms. As a continuation of studies in the laboratory and a plant-growth room, a field study was conducted at the Rosemount Experiment Station of the University of Minnesota. Three Bt corn varieties(More)
After a decade of transgenic crop production, the dynamics of gene introgression into wild relatives remain unclear. Taking an ecological genetics approach to investigating fitness in crop-wild hybrid zones, we uncovered both conditions and characteristics that may promote introgression. We compared diverse crop-wild hybrid genotypes relative to wild(More)
The "high dose-refuge" (HDR) strategy is commonly recommended and currently used for delaying or preventing pest adaptation to transgenic plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. The efficiency of this strategy depends, among other factors, on the initial frequency of Bt resistance alleles and on the fitness costs associated with these alleles.(More)