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Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection
TLDR
Results show that durable immunity against secondary COVID-19 disease is a possibility for most individuals, and assessing virus-specific immune memory over at least a 6-month period is likely necessary to ascertain the durability of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2.
Isolation of potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and protection from disease in a small animal model
TLDR
A role for potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in prophylaxis, and potentially therapy, of COVID-19 is suggested, as indicated by maintained weight and low lung viral titers in treated animals, and the passive transfer of a nAb provides protection against disease in high-dose SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters.
Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans
TLDR
A range of preexisting memory CD4+ T cells that are cross-reactive with comparable affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and the common cold coronaviruses human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43, H coV-229E, H CoV-NL63, and HCov-HKU1 are demonstrated.
Gene-wide identification of episodic selection.
TLDR
A new approach to identifying gene-wide evidence of episodic positive selection, where the non-synonymous substitution rate is transiently greater than the synonymous rate, and a computationally inexpensive evidence metric for identifying sites subject to episodicpositive selection on any foreground branches.
Neutralizing antibody responses drive the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope during recent HIV infection.
TLDR
It is shown that dramatic escape from neutralizing antibodies can occur in the relative absence of changes in glycosylation or insertions and deletions in the envelope, and that autologous neutralizing antibody responses may play a pivotal role in the diversification of HIV-1 envelope during the early stages of infection.
Comprehensive analysis of T cell immunodominance and immunoprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 cases
TLDR
To establish the patterns of immunodominance of different SARS-CoV-2 antigens, and precisely measure virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, epitope-specific T cell responses of approximately 100 convalescent COVID-19 cases are studied.
Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2
TLDR
A branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment is applied, providing a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrating the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.
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