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CONTEXT Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily(More)
Contextual information plays a key role in learning and memory. Learned information becomes associated with the context such that the context can cue the relevant memories and behaviors. An extensive literature involving experimental brain lesions has implicated the hippocampus in context processing. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms of context(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States. The purpose of this study was to understand the natural history of chronic kidney disease with regard to progression to renal replacement therapy (transplant or dialysis) and death in a representative patient population. METHODS In 1996 we identified 27(More)
Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the primary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory(More)
OBJECTIVES The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study used three cognitive interventions (memory, reasoning, or speed of processing) in order to improve cognitive abilities. In this article, we evaluate ACTIVE's ability to avoid extensive decline in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS ACTIVE enrolled 2,802(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of the use of prescription drugs among pregnant women in the United States. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study was conducted with the use of the automated databases of 8 health maintenance organizations that are involved in the Health Maintenance Research Network Center for(More)
The calcitonin family of peptides comprises calcitonin, amylin, two calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs), and adrenomedullin. The first calcitonin receptor was cloned in 1991. Its pharmacology is complicated by the existence of several splice variants. The receptors for the other members the family are made up of subunits. The calcitonin-like receptor(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated the ability of the three cognitive training interventions (memory, reasoning, or speed of processing) fielded in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) multisite randomized controlled trial to protect against two thresholds of extensive decline in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 2 and 5(More)
Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (total phosphorus [TP] ϭ 2–430 mg m Ϫ3), but whole-lake benthic(More)