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The observation that animal morphology tends to be conserved during the embryonic phylotypic period (a period of maximal similarity between the species within each animal phylum) led to the proposition that embryogenesis diverges more extensively early and late than in the middle, known as the hourglass model. This pattern of conservation is thought to(More)
The X chromosome is present as a single copy in the heterogametic sex, and this hemizygosity is expected to drive unusual patterns of evolution on the X relative to the autosomes. For example, the hemizgosity of the X may lead to a lower chromosomal effective population size compared to the autosomes, suggesting that the X might be more strongly affected by(More)
The REDfly database of Drosophila transcriptional cis-regulatory elements provides the broadest and most comprehensive available resource for experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules and transcription factor binding sites among the metazoa. The third major release of the database extends the utility of REDfly as a powerful tool for both computational(More)
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based(More)
The ability to infer historical natural selection from sequence data aides in finding genes that might be important in adaptation and the formation of new species. As the fastest evolving and largest known vertebrate radiation, the cichlid fish of the African Great Lakes exhibit a wide range of recent morphological diversification. We used DNA databases,(More)
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) is an immunoglobulin-related glycoprotein exclusively expressed on granulocytes. In contrast to other members of the CEACAM family, CEACAM3 does not support cell-cell adhesion, but rather mediates the opsonin-independent recognition and elimination of a restricted set of human-specific(More)
Elevated rates of mating and reproduction cause decreased female survival and lifetime reproductive success across a wide range of taxa from flies to humans. These costs are fundamentally important to the evolution of life histories. Here we investigate the potential mechanistic basis of this classic life history component. We conducted 4 independent(More)
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