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The observation that animal morphology tends to be conserved during the embryonic phylotypic period (a period of maximal similarity between the species within each animal phylum) led to the proposition that embryogenesis diverges more extensively early and late than in the middle, known as the hourglass model. This pattern of conservation is thought to(More)
The X chromosome is present as a single copy in the heterogametic sex, and this hemizygosity is expected to drive unusual patterns of evolution on the X relative to the autosomes. For example, the hemizgosity of the X may lead to a lower chromosomal effective population size compared to the autosomes, suggesting that the X might be more strongly affected by(More)
UNLABELLED Failure to predict hepatotoxic drugs in preclinical testing makes it imperative to develop better liver models with a stable phenotype in culture. Stem cell-derived models offer promise, with differentiated hepatocyte-like cells currently considered to be "fetal-like" in their maturity. However, this judgment is based on limited biomarkers or(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult(More)
The REDfly database of Drosophila transcriptional cis-regulatory elements provides the broadest and most comprehensive available resource for experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules and transcription factor binding sites among the metazoa. The third major release of the database extends the utility of REDfly as a powerful tool for both computational(More)
Y chromosomes are genetically degenerate in most organisms studied. The loss of genes from Y chromosomes is thought to be due to the inefficiency of purifying selection in nonrecombining regions, which leads to the accumulation of deleterious mutations via the processes of hitchhiking, background selection, and Muller's ratchet. As the severity of these(More)
The ability to infer historical natural selection from sequence data aides in finding genes that might be important in adaptation and the formation of new species. As the fastest evolving and largest known vertebrate radiation, the cichlid fish of the African Great Lakes exhibit a wide range of recent morphological diversification. We used DNA databases,(More)
It has been suggested that recombination may be mutagenic, which, if true, would inflate intraspecies diversity and interspecies silent divergence in regions of high recombination. Here, we test this hypothesis comparing human/orangutan genome-wide non-coding divergence (K) to that in the pseudoautosomal genes which were reported to recombine much more(More)
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based(More)
Elevated rates of mating and reproduction cause decreased female survival and lifetime reproductive success across a wide range of taxa from flies to humans. These costs are fundamentally important to the evolution of life histories. Here we investigate the potential mechanistic basis of this classic life history component. We conducted 4 independent(More)