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Drug dependence is characterized by dysregulation of brain reward systems and increased sensitivity to stress. Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is associated with increased expression of the neuropeptide dynorphin, the endogenous ligand for kappa opioid receptors (KORs). Activation of KORs causes depressive- and aversive-like responses in rodents, raising(More)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This historic context statement has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, through the California Office of Historic Preservation. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior or the California Office of(More)
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