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BACKGROUND The feminization of nature by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a key environmental issue affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. A crucial and as yet unanswered question is whether EDCs have adverse impacts on the sustainability of wildlife populations. There is widespread concern that intersex fish are reproductively(More)
Natural plant populations often show substantial heritable variation in chemical structure of secondary metabolites. Despite a great deal of evidence from laboratory studies that these chemicals influence herbivore behaviour and life history, there exists little evidence for the structuring of natural herbivore communities according to plant chemical(More)
There is substantial evidence that genetic variation, at both the level of the individual and population, has a significant effect on behaviour, fitness and response to toxicants. Using DNA microsatellites, we examined the genetic variation in samples of several commonly used laboratory strains of zebrafish, Danio rerio, a model species in toxicological(More)
Matrix-based models lie at the core of many applications across the physical, engineering and life sciences. In ecology, matrix models arise naturally via population projection matrices (PPM). The eigendata of PPMs provide detailed quantitative and qualitative information on the dynamic behaviour of model populations, especially their asymptotic rates of(More)
The genetic diversity of many DNA virus populations in nature is unknown, but for those that have been studied it has been found to be relatively high. This is particularly true for baculoviruses, a family of large double-stranded DNA viruses that infect the larval stages of insects. Why there should be such heterogeneity within these virus populations is(More)
Fenitrothion (FN) is a widely used organophosphorous pesticide that has structural similarities with the clinical anti-androgen flutamide. The potential for FN to act as an anti-androgen (at exposures of 1, 50, and 200 microg FN/l over a 26-day period) was assessed in male three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, by measuring kidney spiggin(More)
In a world beset by environmental disasters and anthropogenic disturbances, resilience might be the key to the persistence of natural systems. Yet, the 'measurement' of resilience is hampered by the multiple (and often conflicting) processes that yield the response of systems to insult. We recommend the simultaneous consideration of 'resistance' and(More)
Natural populations of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) show significant qualitative diversity in heritable aliphatic glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites involved in defence against herbivore attack. One candidate mechanism for the maintenance of this diversity is that differential responses among herbivore species result in a net fitness(More)
In some plant-insect interactions, specialist herbivores exploit the chemical defenses of their food plant to their own advantage. Brassica plants produce glucosinolates that are broken down into defensive toxins when tissue is damaged, but the specialist aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, uses these chemicals against its own natural enemies by becoming a(More)
Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically(More)