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The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of flexibility as discussed in various fields of investigations, to extract its characteristic features, and to explore its implications in the case of aerospace system design. In order to discuss any subject matter clearly, it is necessary to begin with a clear set of definitions. Indeed much can be gained(More)
Passenger car use is a major driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the United States. Vehicles continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology, these advances do not translate directly into improved fuel economy. Vehicle weight, interior volume and performance have all grown substantially in the past 30 years, as(More)
A number of human-centred methodologies--subjective, objective, and combined--are used for slipperiness measurement. They comprise a variety of approaches from biomechanically-oriented experiments to psychophysical tests and subjective evaluations. The objective of this paper is to review some of the research done in the field, including such topics as(More)
Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques(More)
A computational and experimental method is employed to provide an understanding of a critical human space flight problem, posture control following reduced gravity exposure. In the case of an emergency egress, astronauts' postural stability could be life saving. It is hypothesized that muscular gains are lowered during reduced gravity exposure, causing a(More)
UNLABELLED A significant number of astronauts sustain hand injuries during extravehicular activity training and operations. These hand injuries have been known to cause fingernail delamination (onycholysis) that requires medical intervention. This study investigated correlations between the anthropometrics of the hand and susceptibility to injury. METHODS(More)
Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy(More)
UNLABELLED Space suits significantly affect the metabolic cost of human movement during extravehicular activity, a key component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. We hypothesized that space suit legs act as springs during running, thereby lowering cost of transport relative to space-suited walking. METHODS We transformed data from suited and(More)