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Passenger car use is a major driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the United States. Vehicles continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology, these advances do not translate directly into improved fuel economy. Vehicle weight, interior volume and performance have all grown substantially in the past 30 years, as(More)
Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques(More)
Cognitive-performance and motor-performance activities in multi-task, high-workload environments were assessed during astronaut performance in space flight and in isolation. Data was collected in microgravity on the International Micro-gravity Laboratory (IML) space shuttle mission (STS-42), and the Canadian Astronaut Program Space Unit Life Simulation(More)
Astronauts exposed to the microgravity conditions encountered during space flight exhibit postural and gait instabilities upon return to earth that could impair critical postflight performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of microgravity exposure on astronauts' performance of two-footed jump landings. Nine astronauts from(More)
BACKGROUND A tactile display to increase an astronaut's situational awareness during an extravehicular activity (EVA) has been developed and ground tested. The Tactor Locator System (TLS) is a non-intrusive, intuitive display capable of conveying position and velocity information via a vibrotactile stimulus applied to the subject's neck and torso. In the(More)
The role of gravitational acceleration on human locomotion is not clearly understood. It is hypothesized that the mechanics and energetics of locomotion depend upon the prevailing gravity level. A unique human-rated underwater treadmill and an adjustable ballasting harness were used to stimulate partial gravity environments. This study has two research(More)
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An immunosensor is a device comprising an antigen or antibody species coupled to a signal transducer, which detects the binding of the complementary species. An indirect immunosensor uses a separate labeled species that is detected after binding by, e.g., fluorescence or luminescence (i.e., a heterogeneous immunoassay). A direct device detects the binding(More)