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Vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, also known as TRPV1) is a thermosensitive, nonselective cation channel that is expressed by capsaicin-sensitive sensory afferents and is activated by noxious heat, acidic pH and the alkaloid irritant capsaicin. Although VR1 gene disruption results in a loss of capsaicin responses, it has minimal effects on thermal nociception.(More)
The tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) voltage-gated sodium channel SNS/PN3 and the newly discovered NaN/SNS2 are expressed in sensory neurones, particularly in nociceptors. Using specific antibodies, we have studied, for the first time in humans, the presence of SNS/PN3 and NaN/SNS2 in peripheral nerves, including tissues from patients with chronic neurogenic(More)
The P2X(7) purinoceptor is a ligand-gated cation channel, expressed predominantly by cells of immune origin, with a unique phenotype which includes release of biologically active inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1beta following activation, and unique ion channel biophysics observed only in this receptor family. Here we demonstrate that in mice(More)
Sensory neurones co-express voltage-gated sodium channels that mediate TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) currents, which may contribute to chronic pain after nerve injury. We previously demonstrated that TTX-R channels were decreased acutely in human sensory cell bodies after central axotomy, but accumulated in nerve terminals after peripheral(More)
P2X(3) is a novel ATP-gated cation channel that is selectively expressed by small-diameter sensory neurones in rodents, and may play a role in nociception by binding ATP released from damaged or inflamed tissues. We have studied, for the first time, P2X(3) immunoreactivity in human inflammatory bowel disease, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.(More)
The endocannabinoid system consists of the cannabinoid (CB) receptors, CB(1) and CB(2), the endogenous ligands anandamide (AEA, arachidonoylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their synthetic and metabolic machinery. The use of cannabis has been described in classical and recent literature for the treatment of pain, but the potential for(More)
Limb denervation leads to reorganization of the representational zones of the somatosensory cortex. Using [11C](R)-PK11195, a sensitive in vivo marker of glial cell activation, and PET, we provide first evidence that limb denervation induces a trans-synaptic increase in [11C](R)-PK11195 binding in the human thalamus but not somatosensory cortex: these brain(More)
Morphological effects of prenatal sound attenuation and sound overstimulation by species specific and music sounds on the brainstem auditory nuclei of chick have been evaluated quantitatively. Changes in length, volume, neuron number, size of neuronal nuclei and glial numbers of second and third order auditory nuclei, n. magnocellularis (NM) and n.(More)
BACKGROUND The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. METHODS We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects(More)
OBJECT The authors review the first series of 10 cases in which injured intraspinal brachial plexus were surgically repaired. They describe the technique of spinal cord implantation or repair of ruptured nerve roots, as well as patient outcome. METHODS Spinal root repair/implantation was performed from 10 days to 9 months postinjury. There were nine male(More)