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This paper revisits the present understanding of typing, which originates mostly from studies of trained typists using the ten-finger touch typing system. Our goal is to characterise the majority of present-day users who are untrained and employ diverse, self-taught techniques. In a transcription task, we compare self-taught typists and those that took a(More)
We present a flexible Machine Learning approach for learning user-specific touch input models to increase touch accuracy on mobile devices. The model is based on flexible, non-parametric Gaussian Process regression and is learned using recorded touch inputs. We demonstrate that significant touch accuracy improvements can be obtained when either raw sensor(More)
The effects of propofol given before and during a period of profound hypotension that caused incomplete global cerebral ischaemia were investigated in anaesthetised cats. Cortical cerebral blood flow, extracellular fluid pH, potassium and calcium ion activities, and electroencephalogram were recorded. Neuropathological outcome was also assessed.(More)
Users often struggle to enter text accurately on touchscreen keyboards. To address this, we present a flexible decoder for touchscreen text entry that combines probabilistic touch models with a language model. We investigate two different touch models. The first touch model is based on a Gaussian Process regression approach and implicitly models the(More)
Touch offset models which improve input accuracy on mobile touch screen devices typically require the use of a large number of training points. In this paper, we describe a method for selecting training points such that high performance can be attained with fewer data. We use the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) algorithm, and show that performance(More)
As interaction methods beyond the static mouse and keyboard setup of the desktop era - such as touch, gesture sensing, and visual tracking - become more common, existing interaction paradigms are no longer good enough. These new modalities have high uncertainty, and conventional interfaces are not designed to reflect this. Research has shown that modelling(More)
This paper studies a novel concept for integrating real-time design optimisation to a sketching tool. Although optimisation methods can attack very complex design problems, their insistence on precise objectives and a point optimum is a poor fit with sketching practices. Sketchplorer is a multitouch sketching tool that uses a real-time layout optimiser. It(More)
Sketchploration is a novel concept of integrating real-time design optimisation to sketching tools, to enable interactive exploration of design alternatives. Although traditional optimisation methods can attack very complex design problems, their insistence on precise objectives contradicts sketching. Sketchplorer is an interactive sketching tool that uses(More)
Walking and typing on a smartphone is an extremely common interaction. Previous research has shown that error rates are higher when walking than when stationary. In this paper we analyse the acceleration data logged in an experiment in which users typed whilst walking, and extract the gait phase angle. We find statistically significant relationships between(More)