Daryl R. Williams

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Even when corrected with the best spectacles or contact lenses, normal human eyes still suffer from monochromatic aberrations that blur vision when the pupil is large. We have successfully corrected these aberrations using adaptive optics, providing normal eyes with supernormal optical quality. Contrast sensitivity to fine spatial patterns was increased(More)
We have constructed a wave-front sensor to measure the irregular as well as the classical aberrations of the eye, providing a more complete description of the eye's aberrations than has previously been possible. We show that the wave-front sensor provides repeatable and accurate measurements of the eye's wave aberration. The modulation transfer function of(More)
The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma's Advanced Trauma Life Support Course is currently taught in 50 countries. The 8th edition has been revised following broad input by the International ATLS subcommittee. Graded levels of evidence were used to evaluate and approve changes to the course content. New materials related to principles of(More)
We analyzed the ratio of L:M cone photopigment mRNA in the retinas of Old World monkeys, using the method of rapid polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism. The L:M cone pigment mRNA ratio in whole retina ranged from 0.6 to 7.0, with a mean of approximately 1.6 (standard deviation, +/- 0.56; n = 26). There was no change in this(More)
Hibernation is a seasonally entrained and profound phenotypic transition to conserve energy in winter. It involves significant biochemical reprogramming, although our understanding of the underpinning molecular events is fragmentary and selective. We have conducted a large-scale gene expression screen of the golden-mantled ground squirrel, Spermophilus(More)
Myoglobin (Myg) is an oxygen-binding hemoprotein that is widely thought to be expressed exclusively in oxidative skeletal and cardiac myocytes, where it plays a key role in coping with chronic hypoxia. We now show in a hypoxia-tolerant fish model, that Myg is also expressed in a range of other tissues, including liver, gill, and brain. Moreover, expression(More)
Myoglobin (Mb) is famous as a muscle-specific protein--yet the common carp expresses the gene (cMb1) encoding this protein in a range of non-muscle tissues and also expresses a novel isoform (cMb2) in the brain. Using a homologous antibody and riboprobes, we have established the relative amounts and cellular sites of non-muscle Mb expression in different(More)
The conjugation mechanism of IncP plasmids may be employed to mobilize small non-conjugative plasmids from Escherichia coli to a wide range of different organisms. This strategy has been adapted for use with the Gram-positive anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIB 8052. Several shuttle vectors containing replicons from pAM beta 1 (Enterococcus faecalis),(More)
In the primate retina, H1 horizontal cells form an electrically coupled network and receive convergent input from long- (L-) and middle- (M-) wavelength-sensitive cones. Using an in vitro preparation of the intact retina to record the light-evoked voltage responses of H1 cells, we systematically varied the L- and M-cone stimulus contrast and measured the(More)
The sensitivity of two techniques in tracking changes in surface energetics was investigated for a crystalline excipient, D-mannitol. Macroscopic crystals of D-mannitol were grown from saturated water solution by slow cooling, and sessile drop contact angle was employed to measure the anisotropic surface energy. The facet-specific surface energy was(More)