Learn More
The mtDNA of Cycas taitungensis is a circular molecule of 414,903 bp, making it 2- to 6-fold larger than the known mtDNAs of charophytes and bryophytes, but similar to the average of 7 elucidated angiosperm mtDNAs. It is characterized by abundant RNA editing sites (1,084), more than twice the number found in the angiosperm mtDNAs. The A + T content of Cycas(More)
The two suborders of bats, Megachiroptera (megabats) and Microchiroptera (microbats), use different sensory modalities for perceiving their environment. Megabats are crepuscular and rely on a well-developed eyes and visual pathway, whereas microbats occupy a nocturnal niche and use acoustic orientation or echolocation more than vision as the major means of(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as key sensors of invading microbes by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activating innate immune responses. Whereas purifying selection has been suggested in mammalian TLR9, evolutionary features of TLR9 in teleosts have not been investigated in detail. We therefore analysed TLR9 DNA(More)
Both cis- and trans-regulatory mutations contribute to gene expression divergence within and between species. To estimate their relative contributions, we examined two yeast strains, BY (a laboratory strain) and RM (a wild strain), for their gene-expression divergence by microarray. Using these data and published ChIP-chip data, we obtained a set of(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae proliferates rapidly in glucose-containing media. As glucose is getting depleted, yeast cells enter the transition from fermentative to nonfermentative metabolism, known as the diauxic shift, which is associated with major changes in gene expression. To understand the expression evolution of genes involved in the diauxic(More)
Protein elongation can occur in many ways, such as domain duplication or insertion and as recruitment of a transposable element fragment into the coding region, and it is believed to be a general tendency in protein evolution. Indeed, a previous study showed that yeast proteins are, on average, longer than their orthologs in bacteria, and in this study, we(More)
Both cis and trans mutations contribute to gene expression divergence within and between species. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to estimate the relative contributions of cis and trans variations to the expression divergence between a laboratory (BY) and a wild (RM) strain of yeast. We examined whether genes regulated by a single(More)
With the completion of the first gymnosperm mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) from Cycas taitungensis and the availability of more mtDNA taxa in the past 5 years, we have conducted a systematic analysis of DNA transfer from chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) to mtDNAs (mtpts) in 11 plants, including 2 algae, 1 liverwort, 1 moss, 1 gymnosperm, 3 monocots, and 3(More)
Adjacent gene pairs in the yeast genome have a tendency to express concurrently. Sharing of regulatory elements within the intergenic region of those adjacent gene pairs was often considered the major mechanism responsible for such co-expression. However, it is still in debate to what extent that common transcription factors (TFs) contribute to the(More)
Divergence of transcription factor binding sites is considered to be an important source of regulatory evolution. The associations between transcription factor binding sites and phenotypic diversity have been investigated in many model organisms. However, the understanding of other factors that contribute to it is still limited. Recent studies have(More)