Darwin W. Reed

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At some point during biosynthesis of the antimalarial artemisinin in glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua, the Delta11(13) double bond originating in amorpha-4,11-diene is reduced. This is thought to occur in artemisinic aldehyde, but other intermediates have been suggested. In an effort to understand double bond reduction in artemisinin biosynthesis,(More)
Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the plant Artemisia annua, forms the basis of the most important treatments of malaria in use today. In an effort to elucidate the biosynthesis of artemisinin, an expressed sequence tag approach to identifying the relevant biosynthetic genes was undertaken using isolated glandular trichomes as a(More)
In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths. The World Health Organization has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide with potent antimalarial properties, produced(More)
In characterizing the enzymes involved in the formation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in the Brassicaceae, we have generated a series of mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana that have reduced VLCFA content. Here we report the characterization of a seed lipid mutant, AS11, which, in comparison to wild type (WT), has reduced levels of 20:1 and 18:1 and(More)
The substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the Brassica napus extraplastidial linoleate desaturase (FAD3) was investigated in vivo in a heterologous expression system. A strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing the plant enzyme was constructed and cultured in media containing a variety of fatty acids. The products of desaturation of(More)
gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA), a nutritionally important fatty acid in mammals, is synthesized by a delta6 desaturase. Here, we report identification of PiD6, a new cDNA from the oleaginous fungus, Pythium irregulare, encoding a 459-amino acid protein that shares sequence similarity to carboxyl-directed desaturases from various species. Expression of PiD6 in(More)
Genomic fatty acid elongation 1 (FAE1) clones from high erucic acid (HEA) Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, and low erucic acid (LEA) B. napus cv. Westar, were amplified by PCR and expressed in yeast cells under the control of the strong galactose-inducible promoter. As expected, yeast cells expressing the FAE1 genes from HEA Brassica(More)
Tropane alkaloids are valuable pharmaceutical drugs derived from solanaceous plants such as Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane). The biosynthesis of these molecules, including the nature of the enigmatic rearrangement of (R)-littorine to (S)-hyoscyamine, is not completely understood. To test the hypothesis that a cytochrome P450 enzyme is involved in this(More)
Plants produce a vast array of specialized metabolites, many of which are used as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, and other high-value fine chemicals. However, most of these compounds occur in non-model plants for which genomic sequence information is not yet available. The production of a large amount of nucleotide sequence data using next-generation(More)
Transformants of Arabidopsis thaliana can be generated without using tissue culture techniques by cutting primary and secondary inflorescence shoots at their bases and inoculating the wound sites with Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspensions. After three successive inoculations, treated plants are grown to maturity, harvested and the progeny screened for(More)