Darse Billings

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The computation of the first complete approximations of game-theoretic optimal strategies for fullscale poker is addressed. Several abstraction techniques are combined to represent the game of 2player Texas Hold’em, having size , using closely related models each having size . Despite the reduction in size by a factor of 100 billion, the resulting models(More)
Poker is an interesting test-bed for artificial intelligence research. It is a game of imperfect information, where multiple competing agents must deal with probabilistic knowledge, risk assessment, and possible deception, not unlike decisions made in the real world. Opponent modeling is another difficult problem in decision-making applications, and it is(More)
Building a high-performance poker-playing program is a challenging project. The best program to date, PsOpti, uses game theory to solve a simplified version of the game. Although the program plays reasonably well, it is oblivious to the opponent’s weaknesses and biases. Modeling the opponent to exploit predictability is critical to success at poker. This(More)
Poker is a challenging problem for artificial intelligence, with non-deterministic dynamics, partial observability, and the added difficulty of unknown adversaries. Modelling all of the uncertainties in this domain is not an easy task. In this paper we present a Bayesian probabilistic model for a broad class of poker games, separating the uncertainty in the(More)
Until recently, artificial intelligence researchers who use games as their experimental testbed have concentrated on games of perfect information. Many of these games have been amenable to brute-force search techniques. In contrast, games of imperfect information, such as bridge and poker, contain hidden information making similar search techniques(More)
The element of luck permeates every aspect of the game of poker. Random stochastic outcomes introduce a large amount of noise that can make it very difficult to distinguish a good player from a bad one, much less trying to quantify small differences in skill. Good methods for directly assessing the quality of decisions exist for other stochastic games,(More)
The associations among coping, mood, and health variables were examined prospectively over 2 years in 86 HIV positive (HIV+) and 167 HIV negative (HIV-) gay men undergoing the stress of AIDS-related caregiving. Path models suggested that including both positive and negative mood and the men's associated coping strategies increases understanding of why some(More)