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Twelve to 16% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) display a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H), whereas most are believed to be microsatellite stable (MSS). The existence of a low degree of instability (MSI-L) group has also been proposed. By using the Bethesda panel of microsatellite markers, the microsatellite instability (MSI) status of CRCs can(More)
Oxidative DNA damage is unavoidably and continuously generated by oxidant byproducts of normal cellular metabolism. The DNA damage repair genes, mutY and mutM, prevent G to T mutations caused by reactive oxygen species in Escherichia coli, but it has remained debatable whether deficiencies in their mammalian counterparts, Myh and Ogg1, are directly involved(More)
Substantial evidence supports the concept that cancers are organized in a cellular hierarchy with cancer stem cells (CSC) at the apex. To date, the primary evidence for CSCs derives from transplantation assays, which have known limitations. In particular, they are unable to report on the fate of cells within the original human tumor. Because of the(More)
The analysis of methylation patterns is a promising approach to investigate the genealogy of cell populations in an organism. In a stem cell-niche scenario, sampled methylation patterns are the stochastic outcome of a complex interplay between niche structural features such as the number of stem cells within a niche and the niche succession time, the(More)
Genetic instability may underlie the etiology of multistep gastric carcinogenesis. The altered microsatellites observed in tumors with the ubiquitous somatic mutation (USM) phenotype may represent the expression of such instability. Similarly, p53 mutations may allow the accumulation of genetic alterations caused by multiple mechanisms. In 40 sporadic(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this article is to present a relatively easy to understand cancer model where transformation occurs when the first cell, among many at risk within a colon, accumulates a set of driver mutations. The analysis of this model yields a simple algebraic equation, which takes as inputs the number of stem cells, mutation and division(More)
BACKGROUND It is possible to infer the past of populations by comparing genomes between individuals. In general, older populations have more genomic diversity than younger populations. The force of selection can also be inferred from population diversity. If selection is strong and frequently eliminates less fit variants, diversity will be limited because(More)
Intratumoral heterogeneity arises through the evolution of genetically diverse subclones during tumor progression. However, it remains unknown whether cells within single genetic clones are functionally equivalent. By combining DNA copy number alteration (CNA) profiling, sequencing, and lentiviral lineage tracking, we followed the repopulation dynamics of(More)
What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable(More)
Background: Clinical specimens are routinely fixed in 10% buffered formalin and paraffin embedded. Although DNA is commonly extracted from fixed tissues and amplified by PCR, the effects of formalin fixation are relatively unknown. Formalin fixation is known to impair PCR, presumably through damage that blocks polymerase elongation, but an insidious(More)