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Cytosine-5 DNA methylation occurs in the context of CpG dinucleotides in vertebrates. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in human tumors has been shown to cause transcriptional silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. Most methods used to analyze cytosine-5 methylation patterns require cumbersome manual techniques that employ gel electrophoresis, restriction(More)
Spontaneous errors in DNA replication have been suggested to play a significant role in neoplastic transformation and to explain the chromosomal alterations seen in cancer cells. A defective replication factor could increase the mutation rate in clonal variants arising during tumour progression, but despite intensive efforts, increases in tumour cell(More)
Distinctive from that of the animal system, the basic plan of the plant body is the continuous formation of a structural unit, composed of a stem with a meristem at the top and lateral organs continuously forming at the meristem. Therefore, mechanisms controlling the formation, maintenance, and development of a meristem will be a key to understanding the(More)
A higher plant homologue to the high-affinity phosphate transporter gene of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) PHO84 was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the Arabidopsis gene PHT1 at high levels in tobacco-cultured cells increased the rate of phosphate uptake. The uptake activity attributable to the transgene was inhibited by protonophores,(More)
Using in vitro gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mutation detection by the RNAase A mismatch cleavage method, we have examined c-K-ras genes in human pancreatic carcinomas. We used frozen tumor specimens and single 5 micron sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue surgically removed or obtained at autopsy.(More)
Genomic instability at simple repeated sequences (SRS) is a landmark for some sporadic and hereditary cancers of the colon. We have identified several human tumour cell lines with up to 1,000-fold increases in mutation rates for endogenous microsatellite sequences, relative to normal cells or tumour cells without the mutator phenotype and show that they are(More)
To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and(More)
Jasmonates mediate various physiological events in plant cells such as defense responses, flowering, and senescence through intracellular and intercellular signaling pathways, and the expression of a large number of genes appears to be regulated by jasmonates. In order to obtain information on the regulatory network of jasmonate-responsive genes (JRGs) in(More)
A temperature-sensitive, elongation-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated. At the non-permissive temperature of 31 degrees C, the mutation impaired tissue elongation; otherwise, tissue development was normal. Hypocotyl cells that had established cell walls at 21 degrees C under light-dark cycles ceased elongation and swelled when the mutant(More)
A eubacteria-type RNA polymerase (PEP) plays crucial roles for chloroplast development in higher plants. The core subunits are encoded on plastid DNA (rpo genes) while the regulatory sigma factors are encoded on the nuclear DNA (SIG genes). However, the definite gene specificity of each sigma factor is unknown. We recently identified an Arabidopsis(More)