Darren Thomas Ruane

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Many currently used and candidate vaccine adjuvants are particulate in nature, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we show that particulate adjuvants, including biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) and polystyrene microparticles, dramatically enhance secretion of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by dendritic cells (DCs). The(More)
IBD is a chronic disorder with disease onset ranging from early childhood to beyond the sixth decade of life. The factors that determine the age of onset currently remain unexplained. Is timing of occurrence a random event or is it indicative of different pathophysiological pathways leading to different phenotypes across the age spectrum? Over the past(More)
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) from mice and humans have long been known to contribute to maintaining tolerance in the lung. Studies have shown that AMs can induce anergy in CD4(+) T cells. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes have been implicated in AM-mediated tolerance. However, it remains unclear what effect, if any, AMs exert on FoxP3 induction(More)
Despite significant therapeutic advances for HIV-1 infected individuals, a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive. Studies focusing on early transmission events, including the observation that there is a profound loss of gastrointestinal (GI) CD4(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection, highlight the importance of inducing HIV-specific immunity within(More)
While dendritic cells (DC) are central to the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity, these cells are very heterogenous and specific subsets can be characterized based on the expression of cell surface markers and functional properties. Intestinal CD103⁺ DCs are the subject of particular interest due to their role in regulating mucosal immunity.(More)
Protective immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses to oral antigens are usually orchestrated by gut dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that lung CD103(+) and CD24(+)CD11b(+) DCs induced IgA class-switch recombination (CSR) by activating B cells through T cell-dependent or -independent pathways. Compared with lung DCs (LDC), lung CD64(+) macrophages had decreased(More)
Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination generates immunity across local, regional, and distant sites. However, nasal dendritic cells (DCs), pivotal for the induction of i.n. vaccine-induced immune responses, have not been studied in detail. Here, by using a variety of parameters, we define nasal DCs in mice and humans. Distinct subsets of "classical" DCs, dependent(More)
Developing efficacious vaccines against enteric diseases is a global challenge that requires a better understanding of cellular recruitment dynamics at the mucosal surfaces. The current paradigm of T cell homing to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involves the induction of α4β7 and CCR9 by Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs)(More)
Protein-based vaccines offer safety and cost advantages but require adjuvants to induce immunity. Here we examined the adjuvant capacity of glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA), a new synthetic non-toxic analogue of lipopolysaccharide. In mice, in comparison with non-formulated LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A, formulated GLA induced higher antibody titers and(More)
DCs are critical for initiating immunity. The current paradigm in vaccine biology is that DCs migrating from peripheral tissue and classical lymphoid-resident DCs (cDCs) cooperate in the draining LNs to initiate priming and proliferation of T cells. Here, we observe subcutaneous immunity is Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent. Flt3L is(More)
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