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Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of(More)
Glucose homeostasis is a fundamental aspect of life and its dysregulation is associated with important diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. Traditionally, glucose radioisotopes have been used to monitor glucose utilization in biological systems. Fluorescent-tagged glucose analogues were initially developed in the 1980s, but it is only in the past decade(More)
Enolase is a component of the glycolysis pathway and a "moonlighting" protein, with important roles in diverse cellular processes that are not related to its function in glycolysis. However, small molecule tools to probe enolase function have been restricted to crystallography or enzymology. In this study, we report the discovery of the small molecule(More)
As part of our ongoing search for new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia showed potential stimulatory effects on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this active extract yielded two new lignans (1 and 2) and three new neolignans (9, 10, and 14), as well as(More)
CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronic acid. CD44 pre-mRNA contains 19 exons, 9 of which are alternatively spliced. Among the CD44 spliced variants, the v4-7 variant, one of the v6 exon-containing isoforms that contains variable exon 4, 5, 6 and 7, confers metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. Splicing of CD44 and the function of CD44(More)
There is an urgent need to discover new compounds that effectively treat diabetes by mimicking the action of insulin (insulin mimetics). Traditional approaches to studying anti-diabetic agents in cells are inconvenient for screening chemical libraries to identify insulin mimetics. 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) and(More)
A triazine-based combinatorial library of small molecules was screened in zebrafish to identify compounds that produced interesting phenotypes. One compound (of 1536 screened) induced a dramatic increase in the pigmentation of early stage zebrafish embryos. This compound, PPA, was also found to increase pigmentation in cultured mammalian melanocytes. The(More)
A triazine-based combinatorial library of small molecules was screened in albino murine melanocytes to identify compounds that induce pigmentation. Six compounds (of 1536 screened) produced at least 3-fold increases in pigmentation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the compounds conferred correct routing of the mistrafficked enzyme tyrosinase,(More)
In urodele amphibians, a critical step in limb regeneration is the cellularization and dedifferentiation of skeletal muscle. In contrast, mammalian skeletal muscle does not undergo this response to injury. We have developed a novel simple, stepwise chemical method to induce dedifferentiation and multipotency in mammalian skeletal muscle. Optimal muscle(More)
Recent studies have shown that stromal fibroblasts have a more profound influence on the initiation and progression of carcinoma than was previously appreciated. This study aimed at investigating the reciprocal relationship between cancer cells and their associated fibroblasts at both the molecular and cellular level in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).(More)