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Cancers arise owing to the accumulation of mutations in critical genes that alter normal programmes of cell proliferation, differentiation and death. As the first stage of a systematic genome-wide screen for these genes, we have prioritized for analysis signalling pathways in which at least one gene is mutated in human cancer. The RAS RAF MEK ERK MAP kinase(More)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly infiltrative malignant glial neoplasms of the ventral pons that, due to their location within the brain, are unsuitable for surgical resection and consequently have a universally dismal clinical outcome. The median survival time is 9-12 months, with neither chemotherapeutic nor targeted agents showing(More)
The Internet is now the single largest source of health information and is used by many patients and their families who are affected by childhood brain tumors. To assess the quality of pediatric neuro-oncology information on the Internet, we used search engines to look for information on five common tumor types (brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma,(More)
High grade gliomas (HGG) are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, and there is increasing evidence that pediatric HGG may harbor distinct molecular characteristics compared to adult tumors. We have sought to clarify the role of microsatellite instability (MSI) in pediatric versus adult HGG. MSI status was determined in 144(More)
BACKGROUND Although paediatric high grade gliomas resemble their adult counterparts in many ways, there appear to be distinct clinical and biological differences. One important factor hampering the development of new targeted therapies is the relative lack of cell lines derived from childhood glioma patients, as it is unclear whether the well-established(More)
We undertook a comprehensive clinical and biological investigation of serial medulloblastoma biopsies obtained at diagnosis and relapse. Combined MYC family amplifications and P53 pathway defects commonly emerged at relapse, and all patients in this group died of rapidly progressive disease postrelapse. To study this interaction, we investigated a(More)
Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) occur in 15%-20% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1); up to half become symptomatic. There is little information regarding ophthalmologic outcomes after chemotherapy. A retrospective multicenter study was undertaken to evaluate visual outcomes following chemotherapy for NF1-associated OPG, to identify risks for(More)
The pathogenesis of acute painful crisis in children with sickle cell disease is poorly understood; suggested risk factors include sickle cell type, severity of anemia, fetal hemoglobin concentration, and hypoxemia from upper airway obstruction. In a cohort study of 95 patients the relationship between clinical, laboratory, and sleep study data and(More)
In this issue of Cancer, Smith et al report on mortality rates for children and adolescents with cancer from 1975 to 2010. 1 They focused on the most recent period between 2002 and 2010 and demonstrated a rate of decline in mortality similar to that observed from 1975 to 1998 after an apparent plateau between 1998 and 2002. An annual percentage change (APC)(More)
Children with pontine glioma usually present classically with ataxia, motor deficits and cranial nerve palsies. The pons has generally not been regarded as a structure that mediates complex affective behaviour. However, we report nine children who either at the time of presentation or progression demonstrated marked behavioural changes manifesting as either(More)