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The relationships between total serum cholesterol (TC) and dementia and between TC and cognitive decline were investigated in a systematic review of 18 prospective studies. Follow-ups ranged from 3 to 29 years, and included a total of 14,331 participants evaluated for Alzheimer disease (AD), 9,458 participants evaluated for Vascular dementia (VaD), 1,893(More)
Most previous neuroimaging studies of age-related brain structural changes in older individuals have been cross-sectional and/or restricted to clinical samples. The present study of 345 community-dwelling non-demented individuals aged 70-90years aimed to examine age-related brain volumetric changes over two years. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(More)
While the conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease has received much recent attention, the transition from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment is largely unexplored. The present pattern recognition study addressed this by using neuropsychological test scores and neuroimaging morphological measures to predict the later(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to review available dementia screening instruments that could be recommended for self-administration, particularly in electronic format. Owing to the gradual loss of insight associated with the progression of dementia, a broad definition of self-administration including self-administration by concerned informants(More)
BACKGROUND Brain volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of adult bipolar disorder samples, compared with healthy controls, have reported conflicting results in hippocampal and amygdala volumes. Among these, few have studied older bipolar samples, which would allow for examination of the effects of greater duration in mood episodes on brain(More)
In addition to multiple health benefits, participation in physical activity can enhance cognitive functioning. Less clear is how reducing physical activity levels affects cognition, an issue potentially addressed by bed rest studies having included cognitive tests. Detailed and reviewed here are 17 such studies, featuring 251 subjects, bed rest for 7-70(More)
We investigated whether responses of single cells in the striate cortex of anaesthetized macaque monkeys exhibit signatures of both parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We used a palette of 128 isoluminant hues at four different saturation levels to test responses to chromatic stimuli against a(More)
BACKGROUND A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by(More)
High doses of noradrenaline increase the sensitivity of skin to heat, presumably by sensitizing nociceptive afferent fibres. Since activation of these fibres increases local blood flow by an axon reflex mechanism, noradrenaline might simultaneously evoke adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction and axon reflex vasodilatation. To investigate this possibility,(More)
This study investigated the effects of body posture on state anxiety and psychological stress. Twenty normal adults performed a demanding mental arithmetic task in both standing and supine conditions, with subjective measures of anxiety and stress obtained before, immediately, and 10 min after the task. Participants were found to experience anticipatory(More)