Darren M. Gowers

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Proteins that act at specific DNA sequences bind DNA randomly and then translocate to the target site. The translocation is often ascribed to the protein sliding along the DNA while maintaining continuous contact with it. Proteins also can move on DNA by multiple cycles of dissociation/reassociation within the same chain. To distinguish these pathways, a(More)
DNA-binding proteins are generally thought to locate their target sites by first associating with the DNA at random and then translocating to the specific site by one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along the DNA. We report here that non-specific DNA conveys proteins to their target sites just as well when held near the target by catenation as when co-linear(More)
MicA is a small non-coding RNA that regulates ompA mRNA translation in Escherichia coli. MicA has an inhibitory function, base pairing to the translation initiation region of target mRNAs through short sequences of complementarity, blocking their ribosome-binding sites. The MicA structure contains two stem loops, which impede its interaction with target(More)
The diversity of reaction mechanisms employed by Type II restriction enzymes was investigated by analysing the reactions of seven endonucleases at the same DNA sequence. NarI, KasI, Mly113I, SfoI, EgeI, EheI and BbeI cleave DNA at several different positions in the sequence 5'-GGCGCC-3'. Their reactions on plasmids with one or two copies of this sequence(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the heterogeneity and flexibility of human ocular mucins and their subunits. We have paid particular attention, in terms of theory and experiment, to the problem of inducing the polymers to assume equilibrium conformations at a surface. Mucins deposited from a buffer containing Ni(2+) ions adopt(More)
The formation of intermolecular DNA triple helices offers the possibility of designing compounds with extensive sequence recognition properties which may be useful as antigene agents or tools in molecular biology. One major limitation of this approach is that these structures are generally restricted to homo-purine. homopyrimidine target sites. This review(More)
Many processes are governed by proteins that bind to separate sites in DNA and loop out the intervening DNA, but the geometries of the loops have seldom been determined. The SfiI endonuclease cleaves DNA after interacting with two recognition sites, and is a favourable system for the analysis of DNA looping. A gel-shift assay was used here to examine the(More)
OxyS and RprA are two small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of rpoS, encoding an alternative sigma factor that activates transcription of multiple Escherichia coli stress-response genes. While RprA activates rpoS for translation, OxyS down-regulates the transcript. Crucially, the RNA binding protein Hfq is required for both sRNAs to(More)
Most restriction endonucleases bridge two target sites before cleaving DNA: examples include all of the translocating Type I and Type III systems, and many Type II nucleases acting at their sites. A subset of Type II enzymes, the IIB systems, recognise bipartite sequences, like Type I sites, but cut specified phosphodiester bonds near their sites, like Type(More)