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Natural head movements in alert, unrestrained cats were studied using video-filming, videofluoroscopy and electromyographic (EMG) recording methods. In each cat, up to sixteen neck muscles or neck-muscle compartments were implanted with recording electrodes. Patterns of muscle recruitment were examined during systematically-selected behavioral epochs in(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bilateral labyrinthectomy on quiet stance in the freely-standing cat. Since loss of the vestibular end organs produces marked deficits in motor behaviour, including ataxia and problems with balance, we hypothesized that labyrinthectomized animals would show impairment in quantitative measures of stance.(More)
1. To investigate the type of vestibular signals that neurons in the caudal parts of the vestibular nuclei transmit to the cerebellum and spinal cord, we studied their responses to natural vestibular stimulation in vertical planes in decerebrate cats with the caudal cerebellum removed. Most neurons were in the caudal half of the descending vestibular(More)
1. The central cervical nucleus (CCN) is known to receive neck and vestibular input and to project to the contralateral cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. To investigate the processing of neck and vestibular input by cells in the CCN, we studied their responses to sinusoidal neck rotation and to whole-body tilt in vertical planes in decerebrate, paralyzed(More)
The plasma concentrations of oxipurinol, the chief metabolite of allopurinol, were studied in 66 patients with gout in whom the dose of allopurinol varied between 100 and 400 mg per day. Renal function ranged from normal to moderately impaired. Plasma oxipurinol concentrations correlated directly with both allopurinol dosage and with renal glomerular(More)
1. In the cat, motoneurons supplying biventer cervicis, complexus and rectus capitis posterior receive disynaptic input from the posterior semicircular canals and from the contralateral anterior canal via the medial vestibulospinal tract (MVST). Disynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral anterior canal reaches these motoneurons via the lateral(More)
Morphometric and histochemical methods were used to estimate the force-developing capabilities and fiber-type contents of four muscle complexes (rhomboideus, levator scapulae, trapezius, and sternomastoideus) that link the shoulder girdle to the skull and cervical vertebrae. Each complex contained at least two member muscles that were distinctive(More)
Five subjects contracted forearm supinator muscles which were stretched after development of maximal isometric torque. The ratio of torque at the end of stretch over isometric torque at that position was calculated as excess torque. Excess torque increased with stretch velocity and decreased with stretch amplitude, and it was not dependent upon final muscle(More)
The feline anterior sartorius is a long strap-like muscle composed of short muscle fibers. Nerve branches that enter this muscle contain the axons of motor units whose constituent muscle fibers are distributed asymmetrically within the muscle. In the present study, twitch and tetanic isometric contractions were evoked by stimulating individual nerve(More)
 Our goal was to study potential substrates for cortical modulation of vestibular reflexes in the cat. In initial experiments, injections of wheat-germ-agglutinate-horseradish-peroxidase into Deiters’ nucleus and the rostral descending nucleus revealed bilateral colonies of retrogradely filled neurons in cortical areas 6, 2, and 3a (about 60 cells per(More)