Darren A. N. Cook

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Wolbachia are widespread and abundant intracellular symbionts of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Their symbiotic relationships encompass obligate mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and pathogenicity. A consequence of these diverse associations is that Wolbachia encounter a wide range of host cells and intracellular immune defense mechanisms of(More)
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites associated with bovine and ovine abortion respectively. Little is known about the extent of Neospora/Toxoplasma co-infection in naturally infected populations of animals. Using nested PCR techniques, based on primers from the Nc5 region of N. caninum and SAG1 for T.(More)
Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different(More)
Snake envenoming is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. The only effective treatment, antivenom, has been in short supply since the 1990s. Whilst the humanitarian response by some antivenom producers has significantly improved the situation, strategies to ensure the long term stability of antivenom supply are still(More)
Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and(More)
BACKGROUND Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses/sheep but, because of complex fiscal reasons, there is a paucity of antivenom in sub-Saharan Africa. To address the plight(More)
Antivenom is an effective treatment of snakebite but, because of the complex interplay of fiscal, epidemiological, therapeutic efficacy and safety issues, the mortality of snakebite remains unacceptably high. Efficiently combating this high level of preventable death amongst the world's most disadvantaged communities requires the globally-coordinated action(More)
Antivenom is the most effective treatment of snake envenoming and is manufactured from the IgG of venom-immunised horses and sheep. Camelids have a unique IgG structure which may account for the report that camel IgG is less immunogenic and less likely to activate complement than equine or ovine IgG. Camelid IgG therefore offers potential safety advantages(More)
Understanding vector-parasite interactions is increasingly important as we move towards the endpoint goals set by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), as interaction dynamics may change with reduced transmission pressure. Elimination models used to predict programmatic endpoints include parameters for vector-specific(More)
New drugs effective against adult filariae (macrofilaricides) would accelerate the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Anti-Onchocerca drug development is hampered by the lack of a facile model. We postulated that SCID mice could be developed as a fmacrofilaricide screening model. The filaricides: albendazole (ABZ), diethylcarbamazine(More)