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Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons die after axonal damage in vivo, and cultured embryonic DRG neurons require exogenous neurotrophic factors that activate the neuroprotective transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) for survival. In contrast, adult DRG neurons survive permanent axotomy in vivo and in defined culture media devoid of(More)
OBJECTIVE Impairments in mitochondrial physiology may play a role in diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neurons is due to abnormal mitochondrial respiratory function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rates of oxygen consumption were measured in mitochondria from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of 12- to-(More)
Diabetic neuropathy is a neurological complication of diabetes that causes significant morbidity and, because of the obesity-driven rise in incidence of type 2 diabetes, is becoming a major international health problem. Mitochondrial phenotype is abnormal in sensory neurons in diabetes and may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy where a distal(More)
OBJECTIVE Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are pro-oxidant factors in distal neurodegeneration in diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that sensory neurons exposed to type 1 diabetes would exhibit enhanced ROS and oxidative stress and determined whether this stress was associated with abnormal axon outgrowth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Lumbar dorsal root(More)
OBJECTIVE Impairments in mitochondrial function have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in axons of sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes is due to abnormal activity of the respiratory chain and an altered mitochondrial proteome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in sensory neurons and may contribute to distal axonopathy in animal models of diabetic neuropathy. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signalling axis senses the metabolic demands of cells and regulates mitochondrial function. Studies(More)
The presence of a proinflammatory environment in the sensory neuron axis in diabetes was tested by measuring levels of proinflammatory cytokines in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerve from age matched control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and other cytokines were diminished in(More)
Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy in diabetes involves the dying back of axons, and the pathology equates with axonal dystrophy generated under conditions of aberrant Ca2+ signalling. Previous work has described abnormalities in Ca2+ homoeostasis in sensory and dorsal horn neurons acutely isolated from diabetic rodents. We extended this work by testing(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic neuropathy comprises dying back of nerve endings that reflects impairment in axonal plasticity and regenerative nerve growth. Metabolic changes in diabetes can lead to a dysregulation of hormonal mediators, such as cytokines, that may constrain distal nerve fiber growth. Interleukin-17 (IL-17A), a proinflammatory and neurotropic cytokine(More)
Diabetes causes mitochondrial dysfunction in sensory neurons that may contribute to peripheral neuropathy. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes sensory neuron survival and axon regeneration and prevents axonal dwindling, nerve conduction deficits and thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CNTF protects(More)