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theoretical evidence for a population of bodies beyond the region of the giant planets. Edgeworth (1949) and Kuiper The Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt contains a population of objects Ȃ10 3 times that of the main asteroid belt, spread over a volume (1951) argued for such a population based on the composi-Ȃ10 3 larger and with relative speeds Ȃ10 times lower. As for(More)
The structural proteins of HIV and Ebola display PTAP peptide motifs (termed 'late domains') that recruit the human protein Tsg101 to facilitate virus budding. Here we present the solution structure of the UEV (ubiquitin E2 variant) binding domain of Tsg101 in complex with a PTAP peptide that spans the late domain of HIV-1 p6(Gag). The UEV domain of Tsg101(More)
Human Tsg101 plays key roles in HIV budding and in cellular vacuolar protein sorting (VPS). In performing these functions, Tsg101 binds both ubiquitin (Ub) and the PTAP tetrapeptide 'late domain' motif located within the viral Gag protein. These interactions are mediated by the N-terminal domain of Tsg101, which belongs to the catalytically inactive(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub) functions in many different biological pathways, where it typically interacts with proteins that contain modular Ub recognition domains. One such recognition domain is the Npl4 zinc finger (NZF), a compact zinc-binding module found in many proteins that function in Ub-dependent processes. We now report the solution structure of the NZF domain(More)
From well preserved leaf damage of the mid-Cretaceous Dakota Flora (97 million years ago), three distinctive, insect-mediated feeding traces have been identified and assigned to two extant genera and one subfamily. These taxa are the leaf miners Stigmella and Ectoedemia of the Nepticulidae and Phyllocnistinae of the Gracillariidae. These fossils indicate(More)
Ubiquitylated proteins are directed into a large number of different cellular pathways through interactions with effector proteins that contain conserved ubiquitin binding motifs. Here, we report the solution structure and ubiquitin binding properties of one such motif, the Npl4 zinc finger or RanBP2/Nup358 zinc finger (NZF) domain. Npl4 NZF forms a compact(More)
The first images of the asteroid 243 Ida from Galileo show an irregular object measuring 56-kilometers by 24 kilometers by 21 kilometers. Its surface is rich in geologic features, including systems of grooves, blocks, chutes, albedo features, crater chains, and a full range of crater morphologies. The largest blocks may be distributed nonuniformly across(More)
The anticodon stem-loop hairpin of tRNA(Lys,3) was synthesized and the solution structure determined by NMR spectroscopy. The hairpin is thermodynamically stabilized by pseudouridine as determined by UV Tm measurements, and the local loop structure is stabilized with base-stacking of the nucleosides in the anticodon loop 5' of the psi 39 nucleoside(More)
After budding, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must 'mature' into an infectious viral particle. Viral maturation requires proteolytic processing of the Gag polyprotein at the matrix-capsid junction, which liberates the capsid (CA) domain to condense from the spherical protein coat of the immature virus into the conical core of the mature virus. We(More)