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How much of the meaning of a naturally occurring English passage is derivable from its combination of words without considering their order? An exploratory approach to this question was provided by asking humans to judge the quality and quantity of knowledge conveyed by short student essays on scientific topics and comparing the inter-rater reliability and(More)
Singular value decomposition (SVD) can be viewed as a method for unsupervised training of a network that associates two classes of events reciprocally by linear connections through a single hidden layer. SVD was used to learn and represent relations among very large numbers of words (20k-60k) and very large numbers of natural text passages (lk-70k) in which(More)
This study examines the hypothesis that the ability of a reader to learn from text depends on the match between the background knowledge of the reader and the difficulty of the text information. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a statistical technique that represents the content of a document as a vector in high dimensional semantic space based on a large(More)
Latent Semantic Analysis 2 Abstract In a previous paper Landauer, this issue) we have shown how Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) can be used to assess student knowledge-how essays can be graded by LSA and how LSA can match students with appropriate instructional texts. We did this by comparing an essay written by a student with one or more target(More)
Many computational models of semantic memory rely on vector representations of concepts based on explicit encoding of arbitrary feature sets. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) creates high dimensional (n = 300+) vectors for concepts in semantic memory through statistical analysis of a large representative corpus of text rather than subjective feature sets(More)
Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis(More)
The Intelligent Essay Assessor is commercial software that grades essays as accurately as skilled human graders. It was used to critique senior officers' papers in both the Army's and Air Force's Command and General Staff Colleges. The Army Research Institute has supported development of this software, which understands the meaning of written essays.(More)
Ten inexperienced remote viewers attempted to predict the outcome of the Dow Jones Industrial Average using associative remote viewing. For each trial in the experiment, each participant remotely viewed an image from a target set of two images, one of which he or she would be shown approximately 48 hours from that time. Of the two images in the target set,(More)