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UNLABELLED In 2008, according to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), about 100 million adults in the United States were affected by chronic pain, including joint pain or arthritis. Pain is costly to the nation because it requires medical treatment and complicates treatment for other ailments. Also, pain lowers worker productivity. Using the 2008(More)
The MixAlco process is a patented technology that converts any biodegradable material (e.g., sorted municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, industrial biosludge, manure, agricultural residues, energy crops) into mixed alcohol fuels containing predominantly 2-propanol, but also higher alcohols up to 7-tridecanol. The feedstock is treated with lime to increase(More)
BACKGROUND Patients in Phase I clinical trials sometimes report high expectations regarding the benefit of treatment. The authors examined a range of patient characteristics to determine which factors were associated with greater expectations of benefit from Phase I trials. METHODS Participants were adult patients with cancer who had been offered(More)
PURPOSE To describe and compare the perceptions of cancer patients and their physicians regarding phase I clinical trials. METHODS Eligible patients had been offered phase I trial participation and had decided to participate but had not yet begun treatment. Each patient's physician also served as a study subject. Patients and physicians completed(More)
BACKGROUND Relatively little empirical research has addressed physicians' responses to fee changes under the Medicare Fee Schedule. OBJECTIVES We analyzed Medicare claims data for ophthalmologists and orthopedic surgeons for the years 1991 through 1994 to evaluate the relative importance of profit-maximizing and target-income theories in determining(More)
BACKGROUND Despite speculation that clinical information technologies will improve clinical and financial outcomes, few studies have examined this relationship in a large number of hospitals. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban hospitals in Texas using the Clinical Information Technology Assessment Tool, which measures a hospital's level(More)
Past research indicates that access to health care and utilization of services varies by sociodemographic characteristics, but little is known about racial differences in health care utilization within racially integrated communities. To determine whether perceived discrimination was associated with delays in seeking medical care and adherence to medical(More)
The primary hypothesis of this study is that racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care impose costs on numerous aspects of society, both direct health care costs and indirect costs such as loss of productivity. The authors conducted three sets of analysis, assessing: (1) direct medical costs and (2) indirect costs, using data from the Medical(More)
This paper provides evidence that growth in health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment slows hospital cost inflation. During the period 1985-1993, hospitals in areas with high rates of HMO penetration and growth had a slower rate of growth in expenses (8.3%) than hospitals in low penetration areas (11.2%). From 1992-1993, HMO growth lowered the rate(More)
Much of the current health disparities literature fails to account for the fact that the nation is largely segregated, leaving racial groups exposed to different health risks and with variable access to health services based on where they live. We sought to determine if racial health disparities typically reported in national studies remain the same when(More)