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Extraprostatic extension is an unfavorable prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Consequently, it has been assigned to pT3a in the current 2002 tumor, lymph node, metastasis staging system. The aim of our study is to analyze the extent of extraprostatic extension by 8 quantitative methods and to determine which is best for substaging of pT3a tumors. We(More)
Significant progress has been made in the standardization of bladder neoplasm classification and reporting. Accurate staging using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) TNM system is essential for patient management, and has been reinforced by clinical evidence in recent years. It is now recognized that(More)
BACKGROUND Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare. The molecular and cellular events leading to its pathogenesis are not well delineated. The goal of this study was to investigate p53 and p16 expression, as well as HPV status, in a relatively large series of primary bladder adenocarcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty six cases of urinary(More)
The S100 gene family, which is composed of at least 24 members carrying the Ca2+ binding EF-hand motif, has been implicated in both intracellular and extracellular functions, including enzyme activities, immune responses, cytoskeleton dynamics, Ca2+ homeostasis, cell growth and cell differentiation. Altered S100 protein levels are associated with a broad(More)
BACKGROUND The progression of normal prostatic epithelium to androgen-dependent cancer and, eventually, hormone-refractory prostate cancer is a complex process involving many different growth regulatory signals. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in prostate cancer cell growth. METHODS This study was undertaken to(More)
Molecular profiling already exerts a profound influence on biomedical research and disease management. Microdissection technologies contribute to the molecular profiling of diseases, enabling investigators to probe genetic characteristics and dissect functional physiology within specific cell populations. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM), in particular,(More)
It is now widely believed that there are two major pathways for urothelial carcinogenesis. One pathway usually involves mutation of FGF receptor 3 and gives rise to low-grade papillary tumors that frequently recur but seldom invade. By contrast, high-grade urothelial malignancies, including high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma(More)
BACKGROUND Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Multiple anatomically separate but histologically similar lung tumors are often found in the same patient. The clonal origin of multiple lung tumors is uncertain. METHODS We analyzed 70 lung tumors from 30 patients (23 females and seven males) who underwent surgical(More)