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Significant progress has been made in the standardization of bladder neoplasm classification and reporting. Accurate staging using the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) TNM system is essential for patient management, and has been reinforced by clinical evidence in recent years. It is now recognized that(More)
It is now widely believed that there are two major pathways for urothelial carcinogenesis. One pathway usually involves mutation of FGF receptor 3 and gives rise to low-grade papillary tumors that frequently recur but seldom invade. By contrast, high-grade urothelial malignancies, including high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma(More)
BACKGROUND Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Multiple anatomically separate but histologically similar lung tumors are often found in the same patient. The clonal origin of multiple lung tumors is uncertain. METHODS We analyzed 70 lung tumors from 30 patients (23 females and seven males) who underwent surgical(More)
BACKGROUND The progression of normal prostatic epithelium to androgen-dependent cancer and, eventually, hormone-refractory prostate cancer is a complex process involving many different growth regulatory signals. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in prostate cancer cell growth. METHODS This study was undertaken to(More)
Differences in gene expression between Pneumocystis carinii-infected and noninfected rats were examined. Total RNA was isolated from homogenized rat lungs and then subjected to differential display with combinations of oligo(dT) and various arbitrary PCR primers. Approximately 50 differentially expressed bands were observed. Several of these DNA bands were(More)
Extraprostatic extension is an unfavorable prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Consequently, it has been assigned to pT3a in the current 2002 tumor, lymph node, metastasis staging system. The aim of our study is to analyze the extent of extraprostatic extension by 8 quantitative methods and to determine which is best for substaging of pT3a tumors. We(More)
AIMS Patients who have undergone intestinal augmentation cystoplasty are at risk for developing latent vesicle malignancy. The aim was to evaluate the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics and molecular genetic alterations in these neoplasms. METHODS AND RESULTS Four patients developing urothelial neoplasms after augmentation cystoplasty(More)
BACKGROUND Morphologic and clinical heterogeneity within tumor grades is well recognized in prostate cancer. The objective of the current study was to determine whether the combined percentage of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 in radical prostatectomy specimens is an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in prostate cancer patients. METHODS The(More)
Urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) is regarded as a precursor of invasive bladder carcinoma. Although relatively uncommon as a primary entity, CIS is frequently seen in conjunction with other bladder tumors and represents a significant source of difficulty for surveillance of patients with known bladder cancer. CIS lesions are difficult to detect by(More)