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OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of drug interventions that increase high density lipoprotein levels. DESIGN Meta-analysis. STUDIES REVIEWED Therapeutic benefit of niacin, fibrates, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on cardiovascular events (all cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality,(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with heart failure remain symptomatic and have a poor prognosis despite existing treatments. Decreases in myocardial contractility and shortening of ventricular systole are characteristic of systolic heart failure and might be improved by a new therapeutic class, cardiac myosin activators. We report the first study of the cardiac(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether discrepancies in trials of use of bone marrow stem cells in patients with heart disease account for the variation in reported effect size in improvement of left ventricular function. DESIGN Identification and counting of factual discrepancies in trial reports, and sample size weighted regression against therapeutic effect(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory immune activation is an important feature in chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about the prognostic importance of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF-receptor 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1/sTNF-R2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD14 receptors (sCD14) in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS In 152 CHF patients (age(More)
BACKGROUND Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organisation (WHO) collects mortality data coded using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) code. METHODS We analysed IHD deaths world-wide between 1995 and 2009 and used the UN population database to calculate age-specific and(More)
The recently-introduced technique of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) for heart-rate variability appears to yield improved prognostic power in cardiovascular disease through calculation of the fractal scaling exponent alpha. However, the physiological meaning of alpha remains unclear. In DFA, the signal is segmented into lengths from 4 to 64 beats. For(More)
OBJECTIVES Augmentation index (AIx) is widely used as a measure of wave reflection. We compared the relationship between AIx and age, height and sex with 'gold standard' measures of wave reflection derived from measurements of pressure and flow to establish how well AIx measures wave reflection. MATERIALS AND METHODS Measurements of carotid pressure and(More)
BACKGROUND Current European and American guidelines recommend the perioperative initiation of a course of β-blockers in those at risk of cardiac events undergoing high- or intermediate-risk surgery or vascular surgery. The Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography (DECREASE) family of trials, the bedrock of evidence(More)
The augmentation index predicts cardiovascular mortality and is usually explained as a distally reflected wave adding to the forward wave generated by systole. We propose that the capacitative properties of the aorta (the arterial reservoir) also contribute significantly to the augmentation index and have calculated the contribution of the arterial(More)