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Several recent reports suggest that inflammatory signals play a decisive role in the self-renewal, migration and differentiation of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs are believed to be able to ameliorate the symptoms of several brain pathologies through proliferation, migration into the area of the lesion and either differentiation into the(More)
BACKGROUND Brain inflammation has been recognized as a complex phenomenon with numerous related aspects. In addition to the very well-described neurodegenerative effect of inflammation, several studies suggest that inflammatory signals exert a potentially positive influence on neural stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Tumor necrosis(More)
Adult neural crest related-stem cells persist in adulthood, making them an ideal and easily accessible source of multipotent cells for potential clinical use. Recently, we reported the presence of neural crest-related stem cells within adult palatal ridges, thus raising the question of their localization in their endogenous niche. Using immunocytochemistry,(More)
Schwann cells (SCs) are the supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system and originate from the neural crest. They play a unique role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves and have themselves a highly unstable phenotype as demonstrated by their unexpectedly broad differentiation potential. Thus, SCs can be considered as dormant, multipotent(More)
Somatic neural and neural crest stem cells are promising sources for cellular therapy of several neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of practical considerations such as inadequate accessibility of the source material, the application of neural crest stem cells is strictly limited. The secondary palate is a highly regenerative and heavily innervated(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) is one of the paradigms used in vivo or ex vivo for studying memory formation. In order to identify genes with potential relevance for memory formation we used mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in which chemical LTD was induced by applications of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG). The induction of chemical LTD was(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term changes in synaptic plasticity require gene transcription, indicating that signals generated at the synapse must be transported to the nucleus. Synaptic activation of hippocampal neurons is known to trigger retrograde transport of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Transcription factors of the NF-kappaB family are widely expressed in the(More)
Neural stem cells are precursors of neurons and glial cells. During brain development, these cells proliferate, migrate and differentiate into specific lineages. Recently neural stem cells within the adult central nervous system were identified. Informations are now emerging about regulation of stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation by(More)
During the process of development, neural crest cells migrate out from their niche between the newly formed ectoderm and the neural tube. Thereafter, they give rise not only to ectodermal cell types, but also to mesodermal cell types. Cell types with neural crest ancestry consequently comprise a number of specialized varieties, such as ectodermal neurons,(More)
We report on the assembly of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) prior to ligand activation and its ligand-induced reorganization at the cell membrane. We apply single-molecule localization microscopy to obtain quantitative information on receptor cluster sizes and copy numbers. Our data suggest a dimeric pre-assembly of TNF-R1, as well as receptor(More)