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Antiviral immunity against a pathogen is mounted upon recognition by the host of virally associated structures. One of these viral 'signatures', double-stranded (ds) RNA, is a replication product of most viruses within infected cells and is sensed by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and the recently identified cytosolic RNA helicases RIG-I (retinoic acid(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces chronic infection in 50% to 80% of infected persons; approximately 50% of these do not respond to therapy. We performed a genome-wide association study to screen for host genetic determinants of HCV persistence and response to therapy. METHODS The analysis included 1362 individuals: 1015 with chronic(More)
Exciting progress has recently been made in understanding the replication of hepatitis C virus, a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The development of complete cell-culture systems should now enable the systematic dissection of the entire viral lifecycle, providing insights into the hitherto(More)
Plus-strand RNA viruses characteristically replicate their genome in association with altered cellular membranes. In the present study, the capacity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins to elicit intracellular membrane alterations was investigated by expressing, in tetracycline-regulated cell lines, a comprehensive panel of HCV proteins individually as well(More)
Fascinating progress in the understanding of the molecular biology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was achieved recently. The replicon system revolutionized the investigation of HCV RNA replication and facilitated drug discovery. Novel systems for functional analyses of the HCV glycoproteins allowed the validation of HCV receptor candidates and the investigation(More)
Great progress has been made over the past years in elucidating the structure and function of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins, most of which are now actively being pursued as antiviral targets. The structural proteins, which form the viral particle, include the core protein and the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2. The nonstructural proteins include(More)
A tetracycline-regulated gene expression system and a panel of novel monoclonal antibodies were used to examine the subcellular localization, stability, and trans-cleavage competence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A complex in inducible cell lines. The NS3 serine protease domain and the full-length NS3 protein expressed in the absence of the NS4A(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Recent studies have described a major impact of genetic variations near the IL28B gene on the natural course and outcome of antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C. We therefore, aimed to explore the impact of donor and recipient genotypes of these polymorphisms on hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver graft reinfection. METHODS Donor and(More)
In vivo targeted gene transfer by non-viral vectors is subjected to anatomical constraints depending on the route of administration. Transfection efficiency and gene expression in vivo using non-viral vectors is also relatively low. We report that in vivo electropermeabilization of the liver tissue of rats in the presence of genes encoding luciferase or(More)
Formation of a membrane-associated replication complex, composed of viral proteins, replicating RNA, and altered cellular membranes, is a characteristic feature of plus-strand RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a specific membrane alteration, designated the membranous web, that contains hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural proteins, as well(More)