Darius A. Schneider

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In type 1 diabetes, as a result of as yet unknown triggering events, auto-aggressive CD8+ T cells, together with a significant number of other inflammatory cells, including CD8+ T lymphocytes with unknown specificity, infiltrate the pancreas, leading to insulitis and destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the specific immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. In genetically susceptible individuals, a still undetermined initiating 'hit' triggers a cascade of events that eventually leads to autoreactive CD8 T cells infiltrating the pancreatic islets and, subsequently, destroying them. There(More)
A recent type 1 diabetes (T1D) clinical trial of rituximab (a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody) achieved some therapeutic benefit in preserving C-peptide for a period of approximately nine months in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Our previous data in the NOD mouse demonstrated that co-administration of antigen (insulin) with anti-CD3 antibody(More)
In type 1 diabetes (T1D) the immune system attacks insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Unfortunately, our ability to curb this pathogenic autoimmune response in a disease- and organ-specific manner is still very limited due to the inchoate understanding of the exact nature and the kinetics of the immunological pathomechanisms that lead to T1D. None of the(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to trigger beta cell dysfunction in vitro and could potentially play a role during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, several clinical trials attempting to block IL-1β function have had minimal success. We therefore re-investigated local expression of IL-1β in human diabetic and non-diabetic(More)
Over the past several years, innate immunity has been recognized as having an important role as a front-line defense mechanism and as an integral part of the adaptive immune response. Innate immunity in cattle exposed to hemoparasites is spleen-dependent and age-related. In this review, we discuss general aspects of innate immunity and the cells involved in(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by destruction of glucose-responsive insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and exhibits immune infiltration of pancreatic islets, where CD8 lymphocytes are most prominent. Curative transplantation of pancreatic islets is seriously hampered by the persistence of autoreactive immune cells that require high doses of(More)
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