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INTRODUCTION External photon beam modulation using compensators in order to achieve a desired dose distribution when brachytherapy treatment is followed by external beam radiation is a well-established technique. A compensator modulates the central part of the beam, and the dose beneath the thickest part of the compensator is delivered mostly by scattered,(More)
Implementation of advanced radiation therapy techniques in clinical practice can greatly improve tumour control and normal tissue sparing. An important part of this implementation is quality control (QC) of every part of the radiotherapy process, as it helps to detect errors and provides instant remedy. This increases the probability of successful radiation(More)
Peptide hormones depend on reliable recognition by their receptors. Any mutation that compromises recognition of hormone and receptor molecules is dangerous, the carrier animal would not procreate and the mutation would be lost. Although, most of the hormones from one mammalian species are active when injected into another, the incompatibility of human GH(More)
During implementation of the total skin electron treatment, using six-dual-field technique, at radiotherapy department a large number of measurements are needed. To assess depth dose curve required by clinicians and dose uniformity over a whole treatment plane, combinations of different irradiation parameters are used (electron energy, beam angle,(More)
As average population life span increases number of people of older age affected with malignant tumours also increases which became significant public health issue. Main modalities in treating cancer are surgery, chemo-therapy and radiation therapy. They can be used either alone or in various combinations depending on tumour type, grade of a disease,(More)
BACKGROUND Electron linear accelerators in medical radiotherapy have replaced cobalt and caesium sources of radiation. However, medical accelerators with photon energies over 10 MeV generate undesired fast neutron contamination in a therapeutic X-ray photon beam. Photons with energies above 10 MeV can interact with the atomic nucleus of a high-Z material,(More)
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