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Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination.(More)
We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen(More)
To compare seroprotection achieved by intradermal versus intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies and a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Meta-analysis of data from 757 adults demonstrated that intradermal hepatitis B vaccination was slightly (14%) less likely to achieve seroprotection than intramuscular(More)
Delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis of human skin (i.e. intradermal delivery) might be more efficient than injection into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, thereby reducing the volumes of antigen. This is known as dose-sparing and has been demonstrated in clinical trials with some, but not all, vaccines. Dose-sparing could be(More)
INTRODUCTION Intradermal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination by needle-free, disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJI) is an alternative to the Mantoux method using needle and syringe (NS). We compared the safety and immunogenicity of BCG administration via the DSJI and NS techniques in adults and newborn infants at the South African Tuberculosis(More)
There is a wide range of methods and technologies aimed at improving human vaccine products and the way they are delivered. Some of these have the potential to increase vaccine effectiveness in specific populations and may furthermore help to increase vaccine access, reduce costs, and ease the logistical burdens of immunization programs, especially in(More)
BACKGROUND New vaccine technologies may improve the acceptability, delivery (potentially enabling self-administration), and product efficacy of influenza vaccines. One such technology is the microneedle patch (MNP), a skin delivery technology currently in development. Although MNPs hold promise in preclinical studies, their potential economic and(More)
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization recommends that as part of the polio end-game strategy a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) be introduced by the end of 2015 in all countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Administration of fractional dose (1/5 of full dose) IPV (fIPV) by intradermal (ID) injection may reduce costs,(More)
A number of product development partnerships are actively developing new vaccines to combat infectious diseases in developing countries. To be effective, the products under development should not only be safe, efficacious, and affordable, but they should also have additional desirable technical attributes, including enhanced stability, efficient packaging,(More)
Multiple-use nozzle jet injectors (MUNJIs), a type of needle-free injector, use a high-pressure stream to penetrate skin and deliver medicament. Concerns for their potential to transmit blood borne pathogens led to development of a hybrid MUNJI for use in mass immunizations. The HSI-500, referred to here as a protector cap needle-free injector (PCNFI),(More)