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Three processes central to osmoregulation of marine birds were compared in three species of ducks that differ in habitat affinity, diet and saline tolerance. These processes are filtration of Na+ and water from the plasma by the kidneys, their reabsorption along the renal tubules, and secretion by the salt glands. Barrow's goldeneyes Bucephala islandica,(More)
During a herbal screening programme to find potential repigmenting agents for the treatment of vitiligo, Piper nigrum L. fruit (black pepper) extract was found to possess growth-stimulatory activity towards cultured melanocytes. Its aqueous extract at 0.1 mg/ml was observed to cause nearly 300% stimulation of the growth of a cultured mouse melanocyte line,(More)
Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and -resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched(More)
Effects of ingested cadmium (Cd) on body mass and plasma, urine, salt-gland secretion, and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were assessed in male and female Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, acclimated to 450 mM NaCl over 6 wk and then held an additional 13 wk on 300 mM NaCl (prolonged saline exposure). Groups of six birds ate diets containing 0(More)
The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed(More)
The physiological regulation of body water volume and concentration was evaluated in Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos, slowly acclimated to increasingly saline drinking water (six equal 75 mM NaCl increments). Body mass, total body water (TBW), water flux, plasma osmolality (Osm(pl)), and ionic and osmoregulatory hormone concentrations were measured at the(More)
Successful ostrich farming requires knowledge of the nutritional needs of the birds. While much information is available on the nutritional value of various feed ingredients fed to ostriches, there is little known about their specific nutrient requirements. In this study, we measured the maintenance nitrogen requirements (MNR) of ostriches by nitrogen(More)
This study examined the effects of simultaneous exposure to saline and cadmium (Cd) on organ mass and histology of a bird with salt glands, the Pekin duck, Anas platyrhynchos. Three mixed-sex groups, each containing 6 birds, ate duck pellets containing 0, 50, or 300 microg Cd/g, respectively, for 4 1/2 mo and drank 300 mM NaCl. Only females on the high-Cd(More)
Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae), large flightless ratites native to Australia, are farmed for their fat and meat. They are omnivorous and feed on a wide variety of plants and insects. Despite having a relatively simple gastrointestinal tract and a short digesta retention time, emus are able to digest a significant portion of the ingested dietary neutral(More)