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How genes are regulated to produce the correct assortment of proteins for every cell type is a fundamental question in biology. For many genes, regulation begins at the DNA level with the use of promoter sequences to control transcription. Regulation can also occur after transcription using sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA to affect(More)
Worldwide there is a tremendous need for affordable anticoagulants that do not require monitoring. The advent of the non-warfarin oral anticoagulant drugs represents a major advance for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). The objectives of this review are to 1) identify gaps in our current knowledge regarding use of these single target(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in women and men worldwide. During the past century, a range of risk factors has been associated with AF, severe complications from the arrhythmia have been identified, and its prevalence has been increasing steadily. Whereas evidence has accumulated regarding sex-specific differences in(More)
Lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) is generally regarded as a benign disorder that does not significantly increase the risk of thromboembolism and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that "lone" atrial fibrillation (AF) is a "heterogeneous" disorder with varying risk for thromboembolism based on the patient's underlying cardiovascular risk factors.(More)
The risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis increases with age. Despite the increasing burden of strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) among older adults, the use of anticoagulant therapy is limited in this population due to the parallel increase in risk of serious hemorrhage. Understanding the risks and their(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is an important risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). Less is known about the relations between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and AF. We sought to evaluate the association between fatty liver and prevalent and incident AF in the community. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined Framingham Heart Study(More)
Sex-specific differences in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation, prognosis, and treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasingly recognized. Women with AF generally experience worse symptoms, poorer quality of life, and have higher risk of stroke and death than men with AF. Effective treatment of the arrhythmia in women is critical to(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to assess incidence and risk factors for severe renal dysfunction in patients requiring oral anticoagulation to help guide initial drug choice and provide a rational basis for interval monitoring of renal function for patients prescribed non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants. METHODS Patients on warfarin for atrial(More)