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Identifying genetic variants influencing human brain structures may reveal new biological mechanisms underlying cognition and neuropsychiatric illness. The volume of the hippocampus is a biomarker of incipient Alzheimer's disease and is reduced in schizophrenia, major depression and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas many brain imaging phenotypes are(More)
The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
BACKGROUND Increased activity of the habenula has been implicated in the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), in which reductions in habenula volume are present after death. We conducted the first magnetic resonance imaging analysis of habenula volume in MDD and bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS High-resolution images (resolution approximately .4(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuropsychological studies of major depressive disorder have described attentional biases for affectively laden stimuli, but these reports were based on measures obtained from medicated subjects. This study investigated performance of unmedicated depressed patients on the Affective Go/No-Go Task. METHOD Twenty depressed patients and 20 healthy(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with abnormalities of brain structure. Specifically, in vivo volumetric MRI and/or post mortem studies of BD have reported abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampal subiculum and ventral striatum. These structures share anatomical connections with each(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have demonstrated neuropsychological deficits across a variety of cognitive domains in depression. Few studies have directly compared depressed subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), and many are confounded by medication status across subjects. In this study, we compared the performance of unmedicated(More)
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions,(More)
BACKGROUND Altered serotonergic function is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of major depressive episodes based upon evidence from neuroimaging, pharmacological, postmortem and genetic studies. It remains unclear, however, whether depressed samples that differ with respect to having shown a unipolar versus a bipolar illness course also would(More)
Previous neuromorphometric investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have reported abnormalities in gray matter in several regions, although the results have been inconsistent across studies. Some discrepancies in the results across studies may reflect design limitations such as small sample sizes, whereas others may reflect biological variability(More)
MRI-based reports of both abnormally increased and decreased amygdala volume in bipolar disorder (BD) have surfaced in the literature. Two major methodological weaknesses characterizing extant studies are treatment with medication and inaccurate segmentation of the amygdala due to limitations in spatial and tissue contrast resolution. Here, we acquired(More)