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The innate immune system detects infection by using germline-encoded receptors that are specific for conserved microbial molecules. The recognition of microbial ligands leads to the production of cytokines, such as type I interferons (IFNs), that are essential for successful pathogen elimination. Cytosolic detection of pathogen-derived DNA is one major(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for gastroenteritis acquired from the consumption of contaminated shellfish. This bacterium harbours two type III secretion systems, one on each chromosome. The type III secretion system on chromosome I induces cell death by a temporally controlled sequence of events that is(More)
Cytosolic detection of pathogen-derived nucleic acids is critical for the initiation of innate immune defense against diverse bacterial, viral and eukaryotic pathogens. Conversely, inappropriate responses to cytosolic nucleic acids can produce severe autoimmune pathology. The host protein STING has been identified as a central signaling molecule in the(More)
UNLABELLED STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids. The membrane-bound obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis induces a STING-dependent type I IFN response in infected cells, yet the IFN-inducing ligand remains unknown. In this report, we(More)
MAPK signaling cascades are evolutionally conserved. The bacterial effector, YopJ, uses the unique activity of Ser/Thr acetylation to inhibit the activation of the MAPK kinase (MKK) and prevent activation by phosphorylation. YopJ is also able to block yeast MAPK signaling pathways using this mechanism. Based on these observations, we performed a genetic(More)
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is known be involved in control of DNA viruses but has an unexplored role in control of RNA viruses. During infection with DNA viruses STING is activated downstream of cGAMP synthase (cGAS) to induce type I interferon. Here we identify a STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production(More)
The STING signaling pathway has emerged as a central TLR-independent mediator of host innate defense in response to sensing cytosolic nucleic acids, either through direct binding of CDNs secreted by intracellular bacteria, or through binding of a structurally distinct CDN produced by a host cell receptor, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), in response(More)
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