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The blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are causing problems in many countries. During a screening of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in Brazil, three strains isolated from the State of Sao Paulo were found toxic by the mouse bioassay. They all were identified as Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii by a close morphological examination. Extracts of(More)
Montargil reservoir, located in a dry flat area in the centre of Portugal, was filled in 1958 to fulfil agricultural, electric and industrial requirements. In May 1996, an intensive bloom of phytoplankton was detected. The algal community was strongly dominated by cyanobacteria with predominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae from May to June and Microcystis(More)
Saxitoxin (STX) was the first known and most studied toxic component of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). This toxin blocks neuronal transmission by binding to the voltage-gated Na+ channel. Although the toxin's mechanism of action is well known at the molecular level, there are still many unresolved questions about its pharmacokinetics and the PSP(More)
Oral intake of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the principal route of exposure to this toxin, with prolonged exposure leading to liver damage of unspecific symptomatology. The aim of the present paper was therefore to investigate the liver and intestine damage generated by prolonged oral exposure to low MC-LR doses (50 and 100 μg MC-LR/kg body weight,(More)
Cyanobacterial blooms and hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) usually occur in summer, constituting a sanitary and environmental problem in Salto Grande Dam, Argentina. Water sports and recreational activities take place in summer in this lake. We reported an acute case of cyanobacterial poisoning in Salto Grande dam, Argentina, which occurred in January 2007.(More)
The aim of this work was to study the mechanisms involved in intestinal permeability of gonyautoxins. For this purpose, the influence on transmucosal resistance of gonyautoxins and their permeability was investigated in excised human jejunal segments. To evaluate these events, the isolated mucosa was mounted in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological(More)
Although the action of Gonyautoxins (GTXs) and Saxitoxin (STX) mechanisms is well known at the molecular level, there are still many unresolved questions associated with the intoxication syndrome in mammals. For example, how are these toxins absorbed in the digestive system? Where are they absorbed? What is the absorption rate? What is the maximal(More)
The effect of sub-chronic exposure of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) on microscopic tissue architecture, hepatic function and lipid peroxidation has been studied in liver and kidney of mice. Mice were treated i.p. with 25 microg of pure MC-LR/kg body weight or saline solution for 1 month (every 2 days) with the aim of producing(More)
In this study, we tested the adhesion-promoting role of major intrinsic protein from both normal human (cadaver) and senile cataractous lenses. Junctional membrane solubilized proteins and pure major intrinsic protein obtained from both type of lenses were reconstituted in neutral phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The interaction of these liposomes with(More)
RATIONALE High-resolution mass spectrometry was applied to the study of a Microcystis aeruginosa strain previously reported as a [D-Leu(1)]MC-LR producer. Detailed analysis revealed new microcystin (MC) variants produced from the strain, and seven of these were previously unreported variants. This work shows the importance of mass accuracy for the(More)