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Vowels, consonants, and sentences were processed through software emulations of cochlear-implant signal processors with 2-9 output channels. The signals were then presented, as either the sum of sine waves at the center of the channels or as the sum of noise bands the width of the channels, to normal-hearing listeners for identification. The results(More)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cf resistance genes confer hypersensitive response (HR)-associated resistance to strains of the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum that express the matching avirulence (Avr) gene. Previously, we identified an Avr4-responsive tomato (ART) gene that is required for Cf-4/Avr4-induced HR in Nicotiana benthamiana as demonstrated(More)
Normally hearing listeners were presented with vowels, consonants, and sentences for identification through an acoustic simulation of a five-channel cochlear implant with electrodes separated by 4 mm (as in the Ineraid implant). The aim of the experiment was to simulate the effect of depth of electrode insertion on identification accuracy. Insertion depth(More)
The increasing availability of sequenced genomes enables the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of large protein complexes. Here, we trace the evolution of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I), which has increased in size, by so-called supernumary subunits, from 14 subunits in the bacteria to 30 in the plants and algae, 37 in the fungi and 46(More)
BACKGROUND Completed genome sequences are rapidly increasing for Rickettsia, obligate intracellular alpha-proteobacteria responsible for various human diseases, including epidemic typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In light of phylogeny, the establishment of orthologous groups (OGs) of open reading frames (ORFs) will distinguish the core rickettsial(More)
We analyzed changes in gene expression during male meiosis in Petunia by combining the meiotic staging of pollen mother cells from a single anther with cDNA-AFLP transcript profiling of mRNA from the synchronously developing sister anthers. The transcript profiling experiments focused on the identification of genes with a modulated expression profile during(More)
The cell surface expression of group 2 capsular polysaccharides involves the translocation of the polysaccharide from its site of synthesis on the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane onto the cell surface. The transport process is independent of the repeat structure of the polysaccharide, and translocation across the periplasm requires the cytoplasmic(More)
The threshold for a sinusoidal signal masked by a band of noise is often times lower when the masking noise is modulated than when it is unmodulated. The difference in masked thresholds is referred to as the modulated-unmodulated difference, or MUD. These present experiments examined the effects of masker bandwidth, masker rate, and masker level on the MUD(More)
Phylogenetic analysis and examination of protein domains allow accurate genome annotation and are invaluable to study proteins and protein complex evolution. However, two sequences can be homologous without sharing statistically significant amino acid or nucleotide identity, presenting a challenging bioinformatics problem. We present TreeDomViewer, a(More)