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Adults are experts at recognizing faces: they can recognize thousands of individuals at a glance, even at a distance, in poor lighting, with a new hairdo, after 10 years of aging, or when the face is seen from a novel viewpoint – unless the person is upside down. Relative to upright faces, recognizing inverted faces is surprisingly poor, with the decrement(More)
Expertise in face processing takes many years to develop. To determine the contribution of different face-processing skills to this slow development, we altered a single face so as to create sets of faces designed to measure featural, configural, and contour processing. Within each set, faces differed only in the shape of the eyes and mouth (featural set),(More)
A striking demonstration that sound-object correspondences are not completely arbitrary is that adults map nonsense words with rounded vowels (e.g. bouba) to rounded shapes and nonsense words with unrounded vowels (e.g. kiki) to angular shapes (Köhler, 1947; Ramachandran & Hubbard, 2001). Here we tested the bouba/kiki phenomenon in 2.5-year-old children and(More)
We compared sensitivity to first- versus second-order motion in 5-year-olds and adults tested with stimuli moving at slower (1.5 degrees s(-1)) and faster (6 degrees s(-1)) velocities. Amplitude modulation thresholds were measured for the discrimination of the direction of motion (up vs. down) for luminance-modulated (first-order) and contrast-modulated(More)
Unlike most objects, faces are processed holistically: They are processed as a whole rather than as a collection of independent features. We examined the role of early visual experience in the development of this type of processing of faces by using the composite-face task, a measure of holistic processing, to test patients deprived of visual experience(More)
We used random-dot kinematograms to compare the effects of early monocular versus early binocular deprivation on the development of the perception of the direction of global motion. Patients had been visually deprived by a cataract in one or both eyes from birth or later after a history of normal visual experience. The discrimination of direction of global(More)
We compared visual evoked potentials and psychophysical reaction times to the onset of first- and second-order motion. The stimuli consisted of luminance-modulated (first-order) and contrast-modulated (second-order) 1 cpd vertical sine-wave gratings drifting rightward for 140 ms at a velocity of 6 degrees /s. For each condition, we analysed the latencies(More)
Adults' expertise in recognizing facial identity involves encoding subtle differences among faces in the shape of individual facial features (featural processing) and in the spacing among features (a type of configural processing called sensitivity to second-order relations). We used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms that differentiate these two(More)
We studied differences in the development of sensitivity to first-versus second-order global motion by comparing the motion coherence thresholds of 5-year-olds and adults tested at three speeds (1.5, 6, and 9 degrees s(-1)). We used Random Gabor Kinematograms (RGKs) formed with luminance-modulated (first-order) or contrast-modulated (second-order)(More)
PURPOSE To study the development of grating acuity in children treated for dense congenital unilateral or bilateral cataract and to examine how variations in treatment affect grating acuity during early childhood. METHODS The authors used optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), preferential looking (PL), or both to measure the grating acuity of children treated for(More)