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The product of the Escherichia coli ORFan gene ykfE was recently shown to be a strong inhibitor of C-type lysozyme in vitro. The gene was correspondingly renamed ivy (inhibitor of vertebrate lysozyme), but its biological function in E. coli remains unknown. In this work, we investigated the role of Ivy in the resistance of E. coli to the bactericidal effect… (More)
We have investigated the specificity of six different lysozymes for peptidoglycan substrates obtained by extraction of a number of gram-negative bacteria and Micrococcus lysodeikticus with chloroform/Tris-HCl buffer (chloroform/buffer). The lysozymes included two that are commercially available (hen egg white lysozyme or HEWL, and mutanolysin from… (More)
Lysozymes are ancient and important components of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. Bacteria engaging in commensal or pathogenic interactions with an animal host have evolved various strategies to evade this bactericidal enzyme, one recently proposed strategy being the production of… (More)
A different behavior was observed in three gram-positive bacteria exposed to hen egg white lysozyme by plate counts and phase-contrast microscopy. The inactivation of Lactobacillus johnsonii was accompanied by spheroplast formation, which is an indication of peptidoglycan hydrolysis. Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to lysozyme and showed no signs of… (More)
Ivy is a lysozyme inhibitor that protects Escherichia coli against lysozyme-mediated cell wall hydrolysis when the outer membrane is permeabilized by mutation or by chemical or physical stress. In the current work, we have investigated whether Ivy is necessary for the survival or growth of E. coli MG1655 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in hen egg white and… (More)
A reverse zymogram method for the detection of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors was developed. This method was validated by using a periplasmic protein extract of Escherichia coli containing a known inhibitor and subsequently led to the detection of a new proteinaceous hen egg white lysozyme inhibitor in Proteus mirabilis.
High pressure can sensitize gram-negative bacteria to antimicrobial peptides or proteins through the permeabilization of their outer membranes; however, the range of compounds to which sensitivity is induced is species and strain dependent. We studied the role of outer-membrane properties in this sensitization by making use of a series of rough and deep… (More)