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Dopamine neurotransmission has long been known to exert a powerful influence over the vigor, strength, or rate of responding. However, there exists no clear understanding of the computational foundation for this effect; predominant accounts of dopamine’s computational function focus on a role for phasic dopamine in controlling the discrete selection between(More)
Anatomical findings in primates and rodents have led to a description of several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits leading from a distinct frontocortical area, via separate regions in the basal ganglia and the thalamus, back to the frontocortical area from which the circuit originates. One of the questions raised by the concept of(More)
This Commentary compares the connections of the dopaminergic system with the striatum in rats and primates with respect to two levels of striatal organization: a tripartite functional (motor, associative and limbic) subdivision and a compartmental (patch/striosome-matrix) subdivision. The topography of other basal ganglia projections to the dopaminergic(More)
A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between(More)
This study aimed at developing a rat model of obsessive compulsive disorder based on the hypothesis that a deficient response feedback mechanism underlies obsessions and compulsions. Rats were trained to lever press for food, whose delivery was signaled by the presentation of a compound stimulus (light+tone). Subsequently, the classical contingency between(More)
The serotonergic system and the orbitofrontal cortex have been consistently implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. Yet, the relations between these two systems and the ways they interact in producing obsessions and compulsions are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that pathology of the orbitofrontal(More)
The current view of basal ganglia organization holds that functionally corresponding subregions of the frontal cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus form several parallel segregated basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. In addition, this view states that striatal output reaches the basal ganglia output nuclei (the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) and(More)
The effects of electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or its subregions were investigated on two cognitive tests that may have relevance to the behavioral impairments of patients with schizophrenia. One task consisted of a delayed non-match-to-sample and reversal of the non-match-to-sample rule, in a Skinner box. The reversal component(More)
Rats undergoing extinction of lever-pressing for food after the attenuation of an external feedback for this behavior, exhibit excessive lever-pressing unaccompanied by an attempt to collect a reward, which may be analogous to the excessive and unreasonable behavior seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given that one of the most salient features of(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represents a highly prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder. Functional and structural imaging studies implicate the involvement of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of this disorder. In patients remaining resistant to pharmaco- and behavioral therapy, modulation of these circuits may(More)