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We present an integrated stand-alone software package named KaKs_Calculator 2.0 as an updated version. It incorporates 17 methods for the calculation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates; among them, we added our modified versions of several widely used methods as the gamma series including gamma-NG, gamma-LWL, gamma-MLWL, gamma-LPB,(More)
INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA.(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian genome sequence data are being acquired in large quantities and at enormous speeds. We now have a tremendous opportunity to better understand which genes are the most variable or conserved, and what their particular functions and evolutionary dynamics are, through comparative genomics. RESULTS We chose human and eleven other(More)
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals(More)
BACKGROUND Introns and their splicing are tightly coupled with the subsequent mRNA maturation steps, especially nucleocytoplasmic export. A remarkable fraction of vertebrate introns have a minimal size of about 100 bp, while majority of introns expand to several kilobases even megabases in length. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We carried out analyses on the(More)
BACKGROUND We previously have studied the insertion and deletion polymorphism by sequencing no more than one hundred introns in a mixed human population and found that the minimal introns tended to maintain length at an optimal size. Here we analyzed re-sequenced 179 individual genomes (from African, European, and Asian populations) from the data released(More)
— We describe a comprehensive study of intrinsic reliability issue arising from partial shadowing of photovoltaic panels (e.g., a leaf fallen on it, a nearby tree casting a shadow, etc.). This can cause the shaded cells to be reverse biased, causing dark current degradation. In this paper, (1) we calculate the statistical distribution of reverse bias stress(More)
—In this letter, we investigate the nature of shunt leakage currents in large-area (on the order of square centimeters) thin-film a-Si:H p-in solar cells and show that it is characterized by following universal features: 1) voltage symmetry; 2) power-law voltage dependence; and 3) weak temperature dependence. The voltage symmetry offers a robust empirical(More)
BACKGROUND Over the past two decades, there have been several approximate methods that adopt different mutation models and used for estimating nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates (Ka and Ks) based on protein-coding sequences across species or even different evolutionary lineages. Among them, MYN method (a Modified version of Yang-Nielsen method)(More)