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We present an integrated stand-alone software package named KaKs_Calculator 2.0 as an updated version. It incorporates 17 methods for the calculation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates; among them, we added our modified versions of several widely used methods as the gamma series including gamma-NG, gamma-LWL, gamma-MLWL, gamma-LPB,(More)
Glucocorticoids (GC) induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, but their exact mode of action is controversial. Although initiation relies on the GC receptor (GR) and de novo gene expression, the effector phase differs among cell types. Proteasomal degradation as well as caspase-3, - 8, and -9 activity are essential for GC-induced apoptosis in murine(More)
INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA.(More)
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals(More)
AIMS To study the distribution of norovirus (NV) in oyster tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VP1 were selected from Balb/c mice. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect native NV in different tissues of artificially contaminated oysters using the MAbs. The data showed that the gills and the digestive(More)
The expression of efflux pump gene lde in ciprofloxacin resistant (Cip(R) ) and susceptible strains of Listeria monocytogenes collected from retail food samples was investigated. For two Cip(R) strains, the MICs of ciprofloxacin decreased four- to eightfold in the presence of reserpine; however, no significant alterations were observed with naturally(More)
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. Unfortunately, the inactivation parameters for HuNoV in clinical, food and environmental samples have not been established. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoV in vitro, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely-used for detecting HuNoVs. However, qRT-PCR does not indicate(More)
The occurrence of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in China highlights the need for strain characterization and subtyping of this pathogenic species. A total of 56 epidemiologically-unrelated strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical samples, seafood and various environmental sites in the middle-east coastline of China(More)
Over the past two decades, there have been several approximate methods that adopt different mutation models and used for estimating nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates (Ka and Ks) based on protein-coding sequences across species or even different evolutionary lineages. Among them, MYN method (a Modified version of Yang-Nielsen method) considers(More)
The c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) protein is a membrane glycoprotein growth factor receptor showing molecular homology with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We examined the immunohistochemical reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against both of these proteins in normal surface epithelium, surface inclusion cysts, and common epithelial tumours of the(More)