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We present an integrated stand-alone software package named KaKs_Calculator 2.0 as an updated version. It incorporates 17 methods for the calculation of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates; among them, we added our modified versions of several widely used methods as the gamma series including gamma-NG, gamma-LWL, gamma-MLWL, gamma-LPB,(More)
INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a T-cell-mediated systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by synovium inflammation and articular destruction. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be effective in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases. However, there has been thus far no report on umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs in the treatment of RA.(More)
Glucocorticoids (GC) induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, but their exact mode of action is controversial. Although initiation relies on the GC receptor (GR) and de novo gene expression, the effector phase differs among cell types. Proteasomal degradation as well as caspase-3, - 8, and -9 activity are essential for GC-induced apoptosis in murine(More)
AIMS To study the distribution of norovirus (NV) in oyster tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VP1 were selected from Balb/c mice. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect native NV in different tissues of artificially contaminated oysters using the MAbs. The data showed that the gills and the digestive(More)
Here we describe the efficient generation of eGFP-transgenic rats using a lentiviral approach. Analysis of the founder generation demonstrated that 46% of the offspring had stably integrated the provirus into the genome and of those 92% expressed eGFP in all blood-derived leukocytes. In contrast to their offspring, all founder rats were mosaic with regard(More)
The occurrence of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in China highlights the need for strain characterization and subtyping of this pathogenic species. A total of 56 epidemiologically-unrelated strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical samples, seafood and various environmental sites in the middle-east coastline of China(More)
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals(More)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important food-borne bacterium that is closely related to food poisoning from consumption of raw or lightly-cooked oysters. Therefore, intensive efforts must be taken to depurate the contaminated oysters. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is considered to be a safe and effective disinfectant and is routinely applied for treatment of(More)
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. Unfortunately, the inactivation parameters for HuNoV in clinical, food and environmental samples have not been established. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoV in vitro, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely-used for detecting HuNoVs. However, qRT-PCR does not indicate(More)
The c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) protein is a membrane glycoprotein growth factor receptor showing molecular homology with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We examined the immunohistochemical reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against both of these proteins in normal surface epithelium, surface inclusion cysts, and common epithelial tumours of the(More)