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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signalling modules that transduce extracellular signalling to a range of cellular responses. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress response. In this study, we isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from maize. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the ZmMKK4(More)
Volatile esters are major aroma components of apple, and an alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) catalyzes the final step in ester biosynthesis. The gene MdAAT2, which encodes a predicted 51.2 kDa protein containing features of other acyl transferases, was isolated from Malus domestica Borkh. (cv. Golden Delicious). In contrast to other apple varieties, the MdAAT2(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) can initiate and shape host immune responses toward either immunity or tolerance by their effects on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. DC-asialoglycoprotein receptor (DC-ASGPR), a lectinlike receptor, is a known scavenger receptor. Here, we report that targeting antigens to human DCs via DC-ASGPR, but not lectin-like oxidized-LDL(More)
The fear responses to environmental threats play a fundamental role in survival. Little is known about the neural circuits specifically processing threat-relevant sensory information in the mammalian brain. We identified parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) excitatory projection neurons in mouse superior colliculus (SC) as a key neuronal subtype for detecting(More)
One-celled female and male gametophytes of three Laminaria japonica strains were isolated, cultured and gametophyte clones were formed. A technique combining strain selection with sporeling raising by the use of these female and male gametophyte clones was studied. Experiments on 9 different crossing combinations was conducted in November of 1997 in(More)
A pharmaceutical grade extract of Coix lachryma-jobi seeds is currently the most commonly used treatment for cancer in China. Although clinical data support the use of this preparation of a Traditional Chinese Medicine for cancer treatment, biological basis for the activity of this preparation has not been previously established. To address this issue, we(More)
OBJECTIVE This work was set out to investigate the effect of saphenous vein preservation during inguinal lymphadenectomy for patients with vulval malignancies. METHODS 64 patients with vulval malignancies were allocated into two groups depending on their clinical stages, with one of them (31 patients included) being subjected to sparing of saphenous vein(More)
Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with(More)
DNA-binding proteins are vital for the study of cellular processes. In recent genome engineering studies, the identification of proteins with certain functions has become increasingly important and needs to be performed rapidly and efficiently. In previous years, several approaches have been developed to improve the identification of DNA-binding proteins.(More)
Gluconeogenesis is a fundamental feature of hepatocytes. Whether this gluconeogenic activity is also present in malignant hepatocytes remains unexplored. A better understanding of this biological process may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Here we show that gluconeogenesis is not present in mouse or human malignant hepatocytes. We find that two(More)