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Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is a large class of secondary active transporters widely expressed across all life kingdoms. Although a common 12-transmembrane helix-bundle architecture is found in most MFS crystal structures available, a common mechanism of energy coupling remains to be elucidated. Here, we discuss several models for energy-coupling in(More)
The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is the largest family of secondary active transporters and is present in all life kingdoms. Detailed structural basis of the substrate transport and energy-coupling mechanisms of these proteins remain to be elucidated. YajR is a putative proton-driven MFS transporter found in many Gram-negative bacteria. Here we(More)
Membrane-integrated type II phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) are important for numerous bacterial to human biological processes, including glucose transport, lipid metabolism, and signaling. Escherichia coli phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate phosphatase B (ecPgpB) catalyzes removing the terminal phosphate group from a lipid carrier, undecaprenyl(More)
Glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) consists of a variety of enzymes distributed widely in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The mechanism by which GH43 enzymes hydrolyze oligosaccharides requires three essential acidic amino acid residues. However, one of them is thought to be missing in galactan β-1,3-galactosidases from the GH43 family. Ct1,3Gal43A, from(More)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an essential role in eukaryotic cells signaling. According to phylogenetic analysis, most GPCRs belong to one of four classes, i.e. A, B, C, and Frizzled (Lagerstrom and Schioth, 2008). The class-C GPCR family contains metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors (GABA B receptor or GBR),(More)
YajR is an Escherichia coli transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Unlike most MFS transporters, YajR contains a carboxyl terminal, cytosolic domain of 67 amino acid residues termed YAM domain. Although it is speculated that the function of this small soluble domain is to regulate the conformational change of the 12-helix(More)
The prokaryotic 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) catalyzes the irreversible cleavage of the glycosidic bond in 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a process that plays a key role in several metabolic pathways. Its absence in all mammalian species has implicated this enzyme as a promising target for(More)
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