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Adaptation of plants to environmental conditions requires that sensing of external stimuli be linked to mechanisms of morphogenesis. The Arabidopsis TCH (for touch) genes are rapidly upregulated in expression in response to environmental stimuli, but a connection between this molecular response and developmental alterations has not been established. We(More)
The Arabidopsis touch (TCH) genes are up-regulated in response to various environmental stimuli, including touch, wind, and darkness. Previously, it was determined that TCH1 encodes a calmodulin; TCH2 and TCH3 encode calmodulin-related proteins. Here, we present the sequence and genomic organization of TCH3. TCH3 is composed of three repeats; remarkably,(More)
A gene family encoding xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET)-related proteins exists in Arabidopsis. TCH4, a member of this family, is strongly up-regulated by environmental stimuli and encodes an XET capable of modifying cell wall xyloglucans. To investigate XET localization we generated antibodies against the TCH4 carboxyl terminus. The antibodies(More)
The main aim of the study was to determine the role of calcium in the amelioration of lead toxic effects in plants with accordingly high/low level of Pb-tolerance and high/low Ca-deficiency tolerance. The study was performed on maize, rye, tomato and mustard. Plants were cultivated in modified Knop's solution. They were subjected to Ca-deficiency, and to(More)
The study of mechanisms by which plants tolerate lead requires ultrastructural observations of lead distribution in cells. However, the conventional technique used in electron microscopy brings up the problem of lead translocation from tissues during chemical processing. If most of the lead is washed out of tissues, then the method is not suitable for this(More)
TCH3 is an Arabidopsis touch (TCH) gene isolated as a result of its strong and rapid upregulation in response to mechanical stimuli, such as touch and wind. TCH3 encodes an unusual calcium ion-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin but has the potential to bind six calcium ions. Here it is shown that TCH3 shows a restricted pattern of(More)
Nonessential metal ions such as cadmium are most likely transported across plant membranes via transporters for essential cations. To identify possible pathways for Cd2+ transport we tested putative plant cation transporters for Cd2+ uptake activity by expressing cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that expression of one clone, LCT1, renders the(More)
Phytochelatins, heavy-metal-binding polypeptides, are synthesized by phytochelatin synthase (PCS) (EC 2.3.2.15). Previous studies on plants overexpressing PCS genes yielded contrasting phenotypes, ranging from enhanced cadmium tolerance and accumulation to cadmium hypersensitivity. This paper compares the effects of overexpression of AtPCS1 and CePCS in(More)
Using the root test, the relationship between the amount of lead in plant tissues and the level of the root growth inhibition was examined for twelve food plant species. 345 mg to 8152 mg Pb.kg-1 dry wt. inhibited root growth only by 5 to 36% as compared to the control. At least 96.6% of lead was bound in cells of root tips. Most of the lead was accumulated(More)
Expression of the ArabidopsisTCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins(More)