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reference epigenomes for histone modification marks when available (see Fig. 2). Signal confidence scores for each histone mark are computed in relevant chromatin states (see Methods). Plot and location of each point is identical to Fig. S10, but instead of denoting tissue/cell type, the colors denote the REMC production location, to evaluate whether the(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), retrovirus-like elements with long terminal repeats, are widely dispersed in the euchromatic compartment in mammalian cells, comprising approximately 10% of the mouse genome. These parasitic elements are responsible for >10% of spontaneous mutations. Whereas DNA methylation has an important role in proviral silencing in(More)
The reference human genome sequence set the stage for studies of genetic variation and its association with human disease, but epigenomic studies lack a similar reference. To address this need, the NIH Roadmap Epigenomics Consortium generated the largest collection so far of human epigenomes for primary cells and tissues. Here we describe the integrative(More)
Histone H3K9 methylation is required for DNA methylation and silencing of repetitive elements in plants and filamentous fungi. In mammalian cells however, deletion of the H3K9 histone methyltransferases (HMTases) Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 does not affect DNA methylation of the endogenous retrovirus murine leukaemia virus, indicating that H3K9 methylation is(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells and(More)
Understanding the diversity of human tissues is fundamental to disease and requires linking genetic information, which is identical in most of an individual's cells, with epigenetic mechanisms that could have tissue-specific roles. Surveys of DNA methylation in human tissues have established a complex landscape including both tissue-specific and invariant(More)
DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) play important roles in silencing of genes and retroelements. However, a comprehensive comparison of genes and repetitive elements repressed by these pathways has not been reported. Here we show that in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), the genes upregulated after deletion of the H3K9(More)
It can be convenient to think of the genome as simply a string of nucleotides, the linear order of which encodes an organism's genetic blueprint. However, the genome does not exist as a linear entity within cells where this blueprint is actually utilized. Inside the nucleus, the genome is organized in three-dimensional (3D) space, and lineage-specific(More)
Retrotransposons, such as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), have colonized the genomes of all metazoans. As retrotransposition can be deleterious, numerous pathways have evolved to repress the expression of these parasitic elements. For example, methylation of the fifth carbon of the cytosine base in DNA (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) is required for transcriptional(More)
Bank of Canada working papers are theoretical or empirical works-in-progress on subjects in economics and finance. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors. No responsibility for them should be attributed to the Bank of Canada. Abstract There is currently a policy debate on potential refinements to monetary policy regimes in countries with(More)