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BACKGROUND It has been proposed that schizophrenia is associated with underactivity of brain glutamatergic neurotransmission, especially at the level of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. Glycine potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission, indicating that it may serve as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment(More)
Animals exposed to cold-water swims, rotation, or inexcapable shocks, display analgesia comparable to that of 10 mg/kg of morphine. The present study investigated whether a narcotic antagonist would eliminate analgesia induced by cold-water swims. In one group of 12 rats, naloxone at 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg was administered at weekly intervals immediately(More)
Extensive evidence has indicated that distinct neural systems specifically designed to inhibit sensitivity to painful stimuli exist. Recent advances suggest that the endorphins, enkephalins and the opiate receptor interact with a descending serotonergic bulbospinal system to mediate the analgesic responses to opiates and electrical stimulation. In assessing(More)
Animals exposed to cold-water swims, rotation, inescapable shocks, abrupt food deprivation and other stressors display temporary analgesia. Since repeated exposures result in adaptation of this analgesia in much the same way that repeated administration of opiates results in tolerance, the possibility of cross-tolerance between cold-water stress-induced and(More)
In this investigation, rats subjected to swim stress showed within 24 hours significant increases in both the level of chromosome aberrations and Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) in bone marrow cells. The generality of cytogenetic damage by behavioral stressors was demonstrated by exposing rats to both cold-and warm-water forced swims, to white noise, and(More)
In three experiments, the locus of tail stimulation in the tailflick assay was found to be an important parameter in determining morphine action. Rats were intravenously infused (Experiment I), injected with morphine subcutaneously (Experiment II), or implanted subcutaneously with morphine pellets (Experiment III). Analgesia was evaluated periodically(More)
Antinociception, induced by continuous cold-water swims (CCWS) and certain parameters of inescapable foot shock, is reduced in hypophysectomized rats receiving supplements of corticosterone and l-thyroxine. To assess which lobe of the pituitary gland is involved in this effect, the first experiment compared the effects of total hypophysectomy and posterior(More)