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Epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE), secretion patterns evoked by reflex (to hypotension and hypoglycemia) and direct neural stimulation of the adrenal medulla were measured in pentobarbital anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Secretion rates were determined by collecting adrenal venous blood. Baseline catecholamine secretion was similar in(More)
The need to align investments in health research and development (R&D) with public health demands is one of the most pressing global public health challenges. We aim to provide a comprehensive description of available data sources, propose a set of indicators for monitoring the global landscape of health R&D, and present a sample of country indicators on(More)
This study demonstrates that pre-exposure to stress influences subsequent effects of stress on pain sensitivity (stress-induced analgesia) and on plasma corticosterone and brain catecholamine activity. Animals exposed to a 30 min shock session (S1 = 8, 5.0 s shocks) 10 days earlier showed a significant attenuation of shock-induced analgesia, as measured by(More)
The principal finding of this manuscript is that the incidence of catalepsy observed in the rat after a single administration of low, clinically relevant doses of the dopamine receptor antagonists and antipsychotic agents, haloperidol and fluphenazine hydrochloride, grows over time such that one re-exposure to the same compound up to 8 weeks later results(More)
In pargyline pretreated male rats, an intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine procedure which resulted in subtotal brain catecholamine (CA) depletion produced a mild defict in copulatory behavior followed by rapid recovery. Challenges employed to study the behavioral capacities of these 'recovered' animals revealed: (1) a heightened sensitivity to acute(More)
1. The authors have recently proposed that the sensitization produced by repeated exposure to drugs or stress may give way to an alternating pattern of increases and decreases in the response to each subsequent exposure (i.e., oscillate), as the limits of the physiological system are approached. 2. Evidence for oscillation has been obtained for 6(More)
1. Although bipolar disorder constitutes a major public health problem, with a high risk of suicide and an economic cost exceeding that of unipolar depression, it has received comparatively little attention, particularly at the basic science level. Perhaps as a result of this neglect, there is currently no animal model able to simulate the cyclicity which(More)
Rats were exposed for 10 minutes to one of several enclosures graded in novelty. In one experiment they were then simply sacrificed and plasma corticosterone determinations made in order to obtain an index of the relative stressfulness of these enclosures. In a second experiment the animals received haloperidol and were tested for catalepsy, 2 hours or two(More)